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Conservation Biology Final
Terms in this set (102)
According to the article "Conserving Imperiled Species", what is the correlation between IUCN and ESA listings?
both well-known listings are linked to imperiled species and the need to raise awareness surrounding species conservation BUT the IUCN list has a greater number of species listed, while the ESA has more legal protections for its listed species
According to the article "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas", what are the most vulnerable guilds?
apex predators, large non-predatory vertebrates, bats, old-growth forest, large reptiles
According to the article "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas", what are the least vulnerable guilds?
primates, venemous snakes, migratory species, understory insectivorous birds
According to the article "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas", what populations are increasing inside reserves?
generalist trees, vines, invasive species, human disease
What is the success rate noted in the article "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas"?
around half of all reserves have been effective or performed passably, but the rest are experiencing a decline in biodiversity
According to the article "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas", what are significant predictors for the success of preserves?
improvement in reserve management, amount of forest disruption, amount of overexploitation of forest resources
According to the article "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas", what changes outside the reserves most affected biodiversity?
increased logging, increased occurrences of fires, and decline in natural forest cover
According to the article "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas", how can we ensure the success of reserves?
- continue with protection of current biodiversity within reserves
- promote the construction of larger reserves as they are more resilient
- be aware of actions outside of reserves (create a buffer zone?)
- promote lower-impact land use through community education
According to the readings on hot-spots and cold-spots, what is a hot-spot?
a hot-spot is "where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat"
According to the readings on hot-spots and cold-spots, what is a cold-spot?
a cold-spot is the huge expanse of remaining planet that is not coined a hot spot
What are the advantages of a cold-spot approach?
- focus on whole ecosystem impact
- prevent global ecosystem degradation
- performance based system
What are the disadvantages of a cold-spot approach?
- covers large areas of land
- does not consider endemism
What are the advantages of a hot-spot approach?
- identifies priority areas and emphasizes the utilization of funds in the most efficient ways
- systematic approach that targets future long term extinctions
What are some disadvantages of a hot-spot approach?
- strong emphasis on only species richness
- exclusion of rare species and large carnivores
- does not consider ecosystem services
- too much focus on species and not on ecosystems
What are some examples of cold spots that may merit protection?
wetlands, Serengeti plains, arctic
What is one way to balance the cold-spot and hot-spot approaches when designating protected areas?
- look at current threats, but also consider future possibilities of threats
- include at least one large carnivore in protected area
- focus on plant, mammal, and amphibious species
- look at resources provided by ecosystem
What was being tested in the corridor and pollinators (Kormann) study?
if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscape
- looked at hummingbird mediated pollination
According to the article on the effects of urban light and noise in Australia, what are examples of three specific impacts of urban light?
1. disrupt dark-adapted eyesight state
2. disruption of circadian cycles
3. reduce activity and movement of many nocturnal animals
According to the article on the effects of urban light and noise in Australia, what are examples of three specific impacts of urban noise?
1. affect social signals such as predator warnings and mating calls
2. decrease in species richness
3. increase in predator vigilance and decrease in foraging efficiency
According to the article on the effects of urban light and noise in Australia, what are three specific conservation actions that can be taken to address the problem?
1. more research to specific areas to build better urban edge design
2. use of light shields and lower-level red lighting
3. sound barriers
According to the article "Accounting for conservation: Using the IUCN Red List Index", what is counterfactual RLI?
a hypothetical outcome for species survival in the absence of conservation efforts and the continuation of threats
- what would happen w/o conservation
According to the article "Accounting for conservation: Using the IUCN Red List Index", what time frame is required for a shift in listing status?
an average of 16 years
How does zoning help?
- benefits multiple sides of the community
- protect species and ecosystem
- promote tourism and revenue for area
- facilitate productive economy
What is the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?
legal document that prevented the take of migratory birds including their feathers, nests, and eggs within Great Britain, Mexico, Japan, and Russia
What does the ESA do (require)?
- prevents the take of listed species, trade in listed species, and damage to the habitats of the listed species
- requires consultation with USFWS and NMFS
- requires agencies to develop recovery plan for listed species with explicit recovery goals
According to the ESA, what is meant by take?
to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, kill, trap, capture, and/ or collect a listed species
What is the bias observed in listing species within the ESA?
- tendency to help critically endangered species over threatened species
- pressure from citizen petitions surrounding certain species
Does the ESA require designation of "Critical Habitat"?
What are some reasons for delisting a species?
- species went extinct
- data error
- factors unrelated to the ESA
What are two examples of species that have successfully recovered?
- Black Footed Ferret
- Peregrine Falcon
What is meant by the "warranted but precluded category"?
a way to designate species that should be included on the ESA list, but is not currently possible at the present time due to funding constraints
What are some ways around the regulations designated by the ESA?
- experimental populations (CA Condors)
- plants are only protected on federal lands
- "god squad": cabinet-level committee that can exempt certain species from protection
What is meant by "Shoot, Shovel, and Shut-up"?
the idea that private landowners were killing protected species on private lands, burying the evidence, and not talking about it
What changes in 1982 were made to make the ESA more palatable to private landowners?
private landowners can now be granted permits through the USFWS to engage in harmful activities towards a listed species if a plan is developed to minimize impacts and mitigate damage
What are strengths and weaknesses of the ESA?
- has power to make change
- can make protection legally binding
- problematic implementation due to political debate and inadequate funding
- no concrete definition of endangered and threatened
What do the concepts of "keystone", "indicator", "umbrella", and "flagship" species all have in common?
these concepts have marketing potential when choosing which species to designate protection through the ESA
What is meant by meso-predator release?
huge surge in population numbers of meso-predators (omnivores) after the elimination of an apex predator
What are three examples of a meso-predator release?
1. decline in shark population = increase in ray populations = decline in bay scallop populations
2. decline in leopard and lion populations in Sub-saharan Africa = increase in baboon populations = increase in plant/ crop damage
3. elimination of wolves = increase in coyote populations = attack on pronghorn antelope and domestic sheep
How can species approach management and protected area management be combined?
Grand Cayman blue iguana: the threatened species were put into captive breeding programs and protected from predators through pens AND the species was released onto a protected reserve
What are protected areas?
"an area of land and/ or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means"
What are some goals of protected areas?
- conservation of intact and functioning ecosystems
- conservation of areas with high biological diversity
- conservation of target species
- conservation of important ecosystem services
What is a land trust?
purchase of land for conservation
Give an example of a land trust.
The McKenzie River Trust
What is a conservation easement?
legal contracts that restrict activities that are harmful to biodiversity
Where and when are conservation easements implemented?
as buffer zones on private land surrounding protected areas when there are the occurrence of nearby activities including mining, grazing, logging
What is conservation banking?
when landowners get credit for allowing agencies to manage for protection
Give an example of conservation banking.
International Paper's conservation bank: expanded habitat for endangered woodpecker in exchange for permission to log at other sites
What are some categories of federally protected lands?
- national parks
- national wildlife refuges
- national monuments
- wilderness areas
- wild & scenic rivers
How does the size of a protected area relate to vertebrate population size?
- largest parks contain larger populations of many vertebrate species
- larger vertebrates need a larger protected area to sustain the same population numbers as a smaller vertebrate
What are the advantages of large reserves?
- support larger animals
- less edge effects and matrix
- support larger populations
- increased gene flow
- support more species
-ecological processes are kept intact
What are the disadvantages of large reserves?
- vulnerable to catastrophes
- difficult to patrol
- not as flexible
What are other considerations for the design of reserves?
- species richness
- surrounding area
- connectivity of reserves
Have wolves been in Oregon continuously through the last century? If not, where did they come from?
NO; wolves crossed over the Idaho-Oregon border
What specific strategies are used for conservation of wolves in rural Oregon?
- ESA listing
- track wolves throughout Oregon
- education programs
- submit official comments to OFWS
- use of range riders (track wolves near livestock)
- red deterrent flags near livestock pens
How big a problem are wolves for ranchers?
not a lot AND there are compensation tools for ranchers if ranchers practice good animal husbandry
What trophic cascade effects were observed with the reintroduction of wolves in Yellowstone? Who are the players in this cascade?
1. reintroduction of wolves
2. predation on elk population
3. elk avoid Riparian areas, while continuing to eat vegetation in upland areas
4. increase in aspen population in Riparian areas
5. more biologically complex ecosystem
(wolves, elk, aspen trees, Yellowstone Park)
What is meant by the ecology of fear?
a ripple effect through the ecosystem caused by the reintroduction of an apex predator
- altered behavior in prey
How does the idea of ecology of fear relate to Yellowstone recovery?
there was a reintroduction wolves into Yellowstone, and as a result, the elk populations increases their vigilance levels and avoided areas where predation by wolves was more likely
What is an example of a trophic effect?
with a decline in shark populations, there has been an increase in ray populations (prey of sharks) and as a result the larger ray population have been decimating bay scallop fisheries
What is the trend in the number of protected areas?
there has been an increasing trend in the total number of protected areas worldwide (although terrestrial areas are significantly more protected than marine areas)
Where are most protected areas located?
Where should protected areas be located?
places with high biodiversity
What kinds of biomes are the least protected?
- temperate grasslands
- tropical and conifer forests
What kinds of biomes are the most protected?
- land at high elevation
- land with less productive soil
How does the location of protected areas compare to human land use?
the protected areas are where there are not a lot of resources or people, undesirable land tends to be put under protection when in reality the desirable land needs more protection
What are ways in which protected areas can be located?
- Hotspot and Coldspot approach
- presence of threatened species
- presence of endemic species
- unique habitat
How effective at conserving biodiversity is the global protected area network?
while over 12% of the earth's surface is protected, there are still gaps in habitat and species protection across the globe--GAP analysis is improving situation
What is GAP analysis?
a conservation technique that seeks to identify gaps between areas that are rich in biodiversity and areas that are managed for conservation
How can we use GAP analysis?
- to determine where species occur
- to determine what land is already protected
- to determine which sites do the best job of filling in any gaps in protection
- to determine strategies for any unprotected areas
Provide an example of GAP analysis.
determination of the need for a presence of unprotected habitat for the survival of a regionally rare butterfly species (conserve the matrix)
How was GAP analysis used in the recent national State of the Birds Repot? What did this help to identify?
GAP analysis was used to analyze bird distribution across public lands in the count; researchers discovered that birds rely on both public and private lands for habitat, but birds in arctic and boreal forest areas are found at higher distributions within public lands
What is meant by conservation in the matrix?
to protect and conserve land outside of protected areas for the continued survival of species as ecosystem and climate dynamics shift (we must think of the most effective locations for reserves in the future)
What are examples of strategies used in agriculture to increase conservation?
- Farm Bill: tax reduction for restoration of habitat
- flooding of rice fields (instead of burning) has increased bird population numbers and effectiveness of straw decomposition
- shade grown coffee increases tree presence and allows for pest control and protection of the surrounding ecosystem and its services
-agroforests: natural habitat within farm land
Describe benefits of wildflowers on farms for bumblebees and for people.
- increase in bumblebee populations
- enhancement of pest control and increase in crop yields for farmers
Summarize the cost-benefit analysis of logging BLM lands.
Costs include: loss of forest connectivity, loss in recreation jobs, loss in carbon value
Benefits include: small increase in county revenue
COSTS OUTWEIGH BENEFITS
What is meant by " It's Jobs vs Jobs, not Jobs vs. Environment"?
industrial logging is now more associated with declining jobs and unstable communities SO a change away from logging industry is no longer just about protecting the environment but giving better jobs to the community
What kinds of jobs could provide an alternative to timber jobs?
jobs in outdoor recreation
What are some conservation values (ecosystem services) on BLM lands?
- clean drinking water
- scenery and recreation
- intact ecosystems
- soil stabilization
- flood control
What are some solutions for connecting areas?
- movement corridors (tunnels under roadways, cables for monkeys to move across roads, natural overpasses)
- large scale connectivity
What are corridors?
a geographically defined area that provides connectivity between landscapes and ecosystems (can be natural or modified)
What are stepping stones?
habitat patches scattered throughout the landscape
What are the benefits to urban forests?
- removal of pollutants
- help to mitigate climate change
- provide ecosystem services
- capture storm water
What are the results of the study investigating the use of urban remnant forests on migratory birds?
- birds use area as stopovers
- birds with lower body mass stayed longer
- weather was a factor in the amount of time birds stayed
How does green space in cities relate to connectivity?
- can provide stepping stones (i.e. rooftop gardens) for flying bugs and birds in the community
- can proved corridors in-between neighborhoods
Do opportunities for conservation exist in urban environments?
YES because cities with more natural areas support more species and pollinators can be easily supported in smaller areas but with great benefits to the whole community
What are some man-made threats to birds?
- street lights
- glass windows
- electric lines
- house cats
What are ways to reduce threats to birds in urban areas?
- leash cats
- shield lights
- make noticeable designs on glass
- put terraces on buildings
What kinds of conservation efforts can be made by people living in urban areas?
- plant native vegetations
- rooftop gardens
- eat and shop local
- restoration projects
- light ordinances
- conserve water
What is an urban conservation effort that works for storm water management?
placement of native vegetation before water drains on the streets
What is an urban conservation effort that works for reducing carbon footprint?
use of public transportation and carpools
What is an urban conservation effort that is aligned with urban planning?
placement of more green spaces and community gardens
What are a few motivators for urban conservation?
- improve human well-being
- connect people with nature
- provide ecosystem services
- preserve local biodiversity
Describe an example of a conservation plan that was more effective because it involved private landowners?
the Columbia Land Trust worked within family-owned forest lands to educate homeowners on the conservation of ponderosa pines and the addition of snags for native wildlife
How does the red-cockaded woodpecker plan illustrate the need for both landowner cooperation and knowledge of the species requirement?
conservationists knew that the woodpeckers were cavity nesters and the species was in danger due to fragmentation, so conservation efforts were incentivized for landowners to restore private lands and create cavity nests
What are Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs)?
project to ensure the conservation of biological diversity by reconciling the management of protected areas with the social and economic needs of the people; a project that focuses on human development and biological conservation
What are some examples of ICDPs?
- Annapurna Conservation: locals were provided compensation or substitution for lost access to resources in Area Project (along with local management of the forests, there were trail improvements, introduction of alternative energy sources, etc.)
- the sea turtle conservation program which employed local people in management, patrol, and outreach jobs
What are the costs of ecotourism?
- increased human to animal disease transmission
- alter species behavior
What are benefits of ecotourism?
- education of the public
- promotion of conservation
How have conservation efforts affected the trend in species decline?
declines in global species populations are less severe with the inclusion of conservation efforts and conservation efforts help to slow extinction rates
What is meant by the term adaptive management?
a structured process of decision making in the face of uncertainty with an aim at reducing uncertainty over time via system monitoring aka learning from previous management outcomes
What are a couple of success stories in species conservation?
- mallorcan midwife toad
- bald eagle
Provide an example of potential ecosystem resiliency.
removal of dams leads to increase in migratory fish populations once sediment was quickly cleared by flowing water
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