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Germany's largest port city.


the capital and largest city of France

Charles the Bald

grandson of Charlemagne who received the western part of the empire; modern France


the act of freeing from captivity or punishment

Shallow draft ships

ships that can move close to shore


a river that rises in Russia near Smolensk and flowing south through Belarus and Ukraine to empty into the Black Sea


longest river in Europe


a city in northwestern Russia on the Volkhov River


First city-state of Russia; 1st inhabitants - Vikings and Slavs; Olda and Oleg ruled.


an island comprising the republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland


a volcanic island in the North Atlantic near the Arctic Circle


the largest island in the world

north america

a continent (the third largest) in the western hemisphere connected to South America by the Isthmus of Panama


a former province of northwestern France on the English channel


a French river that flows through the heart of Paris and then northward into the English Channel


Normans invaded England

Count of Paris, Eudes

King of Western Francia


Norse chieftain who became the first duke of Normandy (860-931)

Henry, Duke of Saxony

known as Henry the Foweler, began the German policy of opening up the east for its own exploitation; began the cavalry forces to train warriors to gith the gyars, wo fought on Horseback: won a large battle agaist the Magyars


a.k.a. otto the great: (936-937) German ruler who successfully subdued all the competing dukes and crushed the Magyars. Crowned emperor by Pope John XII in 962, helped revive the eastern half of Charlemagne's empire. Established an empire that would last until 1806.

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