Human and economic costs: 618,000 deaths, Destruction of property. Role of women: Begin to work in factories, run farms, work as spies. Clara Barton: spy and nurse and created Red Cross. Effects Women: broadens their spheres. Women in North: become field nurse, start sanitary commission which emphasizes nurtrion for soldiers, proper medical attention/ treatment of battle wound, some taking leading role on small farms, others even start working in factories. Reform movements‐Temperance movement(soldiers coming home
with drug and alcohol problem because of excessive exposure on the battle fields). Women in south still not seen as acceptable for women to be battlefield nurses roles/spheres of influence doesn't evolve much, some however, take control/ management of large plantations, but not that many. Role of former slaves: Fought valiantly for the union. Preservation of the Union. Supremacy of the Federal Government over the states
Slavery in America began in the early 17th Century and continued to be practiced for the next 250 years by the colonies and states. Slaves, mostly from Africa, worked in the production of tobacco crops and later, cotton. With the invention of the cotton gin in 1793 along with the growing demand for the product in Europe, the use of slaves in the South became a foundation of their economy.
In the late 18th century, the abolitionist movement began in the north and the country began to divide over the issue between North and South. In 1820, the Missouri Compromise banned slavery in all new western territories, which Southern states saw as a threat to the institution of slavery itself. In 1857, the Supreme Court decision known as the Dred Scott Decision said that Negroes (the term then used to describe the African race) were not citizens and had no rights of citizenship; therefore, slaves that escaped to free states where not free but remained the property of their owners and must be returned to them. The decision antagonized many Northerners and breathed new life into the floundering Abolition Movement. Main source of economy for southern states. During the war, Abraham Lincoln issued his famous Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in all areas of the country that were at that time in rebellion. This measure helped prevent European intervention on the side of the South and freed Union army and navy officers from returning escaped slaves to their owners, but not until after the Union had won the war and the subsequent passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution were the American slaves officially freed. The southerners believed the bible made slavery okay, said God allowed it. On a plantation, slaves stayed in touch with their culture because many slaves were there, but on small farms they adapted to white culture because they had close connection with their white masters.Slaves created many African American groups like churches or gatherings
Scots Irish immigrated to North, much racism and nativism groups. Know Nothing party started because of this prejudice. People coming over, Irish and Germans, potato famine in Ireland; England colonized Ireland, forced them to grow potato, too much sickness in potato crop, couldn't grow them; moved out of Ireland, stay in Port area, have no money to go anywhere else, wanted to stay where other immigrants were. Get discriminated against, weren't "American" enough, "lazy." Irish is mostly Catholic, America is primarily Protestant , nativism (idea of favoring native born people) The Irish do unskilled labor. Germans were more fortunate, come because of hard times in Germany, not as bad conditions as in Ireland; they have the money to live in America. Found St. Louis, Cincinnati, Milewaki; encounter less discrimination; reason they come is because America is prosperous, land of opportunity
Lot of crime, overcrowding in slums. Celebrations of other countries celebrated in America because so diverse; nation of immigrants. Immigrants work for low pay, harder to organize