27 terms

Earth Sciences, Test 3 review

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Salinity
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts and other solids in a given amount of liquid
Thermocline
in water, a distinctive temperature transition zone that separates and upper layer that is mixed by the wind and colder, deep layer that is not mixed.
Isothermal
of a process or change taking place at constant temperature
Density
Mass per unit volume but can be thought of as a measure of how heavy something is for its size. For instance, an object that has low density is lightweight for its size, such as dry sponge, foam packing, or surfboard. Conversely, an object that has high density is heavy for its size, such as cement and many metals.
Seawater density
Influenced by two man factors: salinity and temperature. An increase in salinity adds dissolved substances and results in an increase in seawater density.
Inverse relationship
negative association between two variables; if one goes up, the other goes down, vice-verse
Inversely Proportional
Such a relationship where one variable decreases as a result of another variable increase is known is inverse relationship, where one variable is inversely proportional.
Pycnoline
The layer of ocean water between about 300 meters and 1000 meters, where there is a rapid change of density with depth. High gravitational stability and presents a significant barrier to mixing between low density water above and high density below.
Transition Zone
headwaters merge from wider, deeper streams that flow down gentler slopes with fewer obstacles 397
Surface mixed zone
shallow, zone of mixing, and sun warmed 397
Deep zone
Zone of ocean below pynocline, in which there's little change of density w/ increase in depth 397
Abrasion
the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice 424
Backshore
Beach zone lying between the foreshore and the coast acted on by waves only during severe storms and exceptionally high water 420
Barrier Island
A long strip of land that is parallel to the mainland, offering protection from the ocean forces. It is also durable and flexible. It is the "border" between the sound and the sea. It is made bigger by the long shore current/ smaller/ changing its size. 430
Baymouth bar
A sandbar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the main body of water. 439
ozone
a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water
sublimation
The change in state from a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state
cyclone
(meteorology) rapid inward circulation of air masses about a low-pressure center
front
the side that is seen or that goes first
anticyclone
An atmospheric condition of high central pressure, with currents flowing outward.
northerlies
A wind from the north
doldrums
a belt of calms and light winds between the northern and southern trade winds of the Atlantic and Pacific
easterlies
wind patterns where the wind blows from the northwest to southeast
albedo
the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected off the surface of an object
adiabatic cooling
the process by which the temperature of an air mass decreases as the air mass rises and expands
groin
a protective structure of stone or concrete
jetty
a protective structure of stone or concrete