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WSET L 3 - Sparkling
Terms in this set (48)
Methods of production for sparkling
Brut Nature RS
0-3 g/L. No dosage can be added and any RS remains naturally after ferment.
H acid, L sugar but ripe flavours so no green notes. Usually done by hand so have whole bunches unsplit, but some inexpensive will machine harvest for efficiency to keep from sugar spiking too fast. Whole bunch press good and gentle. EU regulations on maximum pressure that can be used and level of extraction.
1. Harvest and press
2. Primary fermentation of Base wine - usually in stainless but sometimes old oak, sometimes MLF
3. Blending: for NV house style, balance, and/or complexity.
4. Second alcoholic fermentation-
5. Yeast autolysis
8. Wine toppped with liqueur d'expédition and sealed with cork with wire cage
Mixture of wine and sugar. Amount of sugar will determine sweeetness of wine. Aka dosage. Also acts as another blending stage to control balance and house style. Etc.
Moves bottle from horizontal to inverted vertical position slowly so yeast sediment slides down neck of bottle into the plastic cup in the crown seal.
A frame riddling rack
Modern machine used for riddling. 500 bottles on a hydraulic arm which trotatws simulating riddling. Completes job in a matter of days rather than up to 8 weeks.
Once riddling complete, neck submerged in cold brine solution which freezes the wine in the neck. Bottles turned upright and frozen wine holds sediment in place. Cap removed and pressure ejects frozen wine, sediment and plastic.
Second alcoholic fermentation
from liqueur de tirage. Wine slowly ferments in bottle raising alcohol 1.2-1.3% and CO2 that is generated by yeasts dissolves in wine and makes sparkle. Pressure is equivalent to 5-6 atmospheres.
. Yeast autolysis
yeasts die after second ferment and settle as less in bottom of bottle. Break down releasing chemical compounds into wine which contribute to flavour. This normally is 4-5 years but can be longer.
Same as traditional until riddling. Instead, wine is emptied into pressurized tank and filtered to remove lees, liqueur d'expédition is added and wine goes into a fresh bottle. Often referred to on label as 'bottle-fermented'
No flavours of autolysis. Only base wine flavours. Ideal for grapes with strong varietal characters or fruity styles such as prosecco. No MLF or oak. After primary ferment, yeast, sugar, yeast nutrients and clarifying agents are added, secondary ferment takes place in tank. Filtered then bottled under pressure. Most show no autolysis as little lees contact but some will stir less to give it.
Common in Piemonte. Sweet and fruity. Only one fermentation. Juice is chilled and stored until needed, to avoid fermentation. When ready, juice warmed and ferment starts in pressurized tanks. Halfway through ferment, tank is sealed so CO2 is retained. Goes to approx. 7%abv and pressure of 5 - 6 atmospheres. Wine chilled to stop ferment, filtered under pressure to remove yeast and bottled for immediate sale.
Cheapest of all methods. CO2 added to base wines. Used to retain varietal character for ex. Sauvignon Blanc.
Can either be red and white base blend or short maceration. Liqueur d'expédition can also effect color. Some appellations only allow rose from maceration.
One appellation: Champagne AC.
44 premier Cru
17 grand cru
Villages are rated, not vineyards (unlike Burgundy or Alsace) so there could be some great examples in average village or visa versatile. Also there are no additional requirements for these crus.
5 main sites-regions of champagne
Montagne de Reims
Vallée de la Marne
Côte de Blancs
Côte de Sézanne
Côte des Bar
Cool continental. Hazards: winter freeze, spring frosts, rainy, cloudy weather. Means even in warm years sugar is low and acid high which is ideal. Most vineyards
On slopes to alleviate frost. Soils dominated by chalk which is good drainage after storms but retains some water in dry periods.
3 main varieties of champagne
Chardonnay - Côte des blancs and Côte de Sézanne. High acid floral citrus.
Pinot Noir - montagne de Reims, côtes des bar. Red fruit, body and structure
Meuniere - Vallée de la Marne. Buds late protecting from spring frosts. Fruity flavours important for wines to be drunk young.
First liquid to come off press containing purest juice. Used in best champagne
Juice coming later in the pressing
Age requirement for Champagne
NV - minimum 15 months, 12 of which on lees
Vintage - 36 month minimum, no specific lees time.
Most age for longer than minimum.
Another French sparkling wine. Traditional method with minimum 9 months on lees.
Usually Same grapes as the still wines of the particular region, with the exception of Alsace.
Most important ACs for Crémant
Crémant de Bourgogne
Crémant de Loire
Crémant d'Alsace - graoes
Aromatic varieties such as gewurztraminer and Muscat not allowed. Chardonnay is.
Sparkling in Saumur
Traditional method. Min. 9 months on lees.
Also sparkling red from Cabernet Franc.
Sparkling in vouvray
Traditional method. Min 9 months on lees. Higher volume than still Vouvray. Majority from Chenin Blanc. High acid which is goood. Autolytic character, when present, is more smoky and toasty than bread and biscuit.
Different geographic areas around Spain all under the Cava DO. Traditional Method. Atleast 9 months on lees.
Areas for Cava
Catalan vineyards around Sant Sadurní d'Anoia
Traditional varieties for Cava
Dry, M acid, some autolytic but different to champagne. Generally lower in acid than champagne and ready to drink upon release
Piemonte region in MW Italy. Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains. Sweet, low alcohol (7%abv) with peach and grape. Drink as young as possible.
NE Italy. Two regions. Typically tank method. M acid, green apple and melon. Typically a little higher RS than Champagne and Cava. This is usually from stopping ferment rather than additions to wine. Drink young.
Tank method. Base wines from Italy or France but make into sparkling within Germany.
Sekt which Grapes must be grown in Germany. Best are Riesling.
Deutscher Sekt bA
If all grapes come from premium region, ie. Mosel.
Two REGIONS FOR prosecco
Prosecco DOC - Veneto and Friuli
Fruit from one of the two towns on steep limestone slopes NW of Venice.
Glera is grape variety, previously known as prosecco, that is used in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG
Cartizze and Rive
Terms indicating exceptional vineyard site for Prosecci from Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG.
Red sparkling from Australia
Inexpensive from carbonation or tank, but best are traditional method. Usually Shiraz but some Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.usually full bodied, red berry, smooth tannins with some residual sugar.
Méthode Cap Classique
South African traditional method sparkling. Fruit throughout western cape, best are Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. Site selection important given warm climate. 9 months minimum in less.
Cap Classique producers association
Premium producers. Recommend aging on lees minimum 12 months. Not necessary to be a member to use term cap classique on label.
Mostly Cali. Best from cooler regions - Los Carneros AVA, Anderson Valley AVA. Traditional method with long lees time - 5 yrs not uncommon.
Cheap tank and carbonation methods made from high yielding regions like Central Valley and are med-sweet to sweet.
Liqueur de tirage
Wine, sugar, yeast, yeast nutrients and clarifying agent.
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