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Biology Final Vocabulary
Terms in this set (63)
figured out that the "transforming factor" is indeed DNA and figured out that there was some kind of DNA in cells by observing non-deadly bacteria, which can be "transformed" when mixed with heat-killed, deadly bacteria
Experimented with bacteria
Used mice and injected with bacteria (R and S)
R = Not Deadly, S = Deadly
Wanted to find out what was causing transformation (R cells were transformed to S cells)
DNA is the genetic material
conducted the Avery-MacLeod-McCarthy experiment that isolated DNA as the material of which genes and chromosomes are made
discovered that DNA, rather than protein, make up the chemical nature of a gene
provided the first experimental evidence that the genetic material of living cells is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
discovered that deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA is responsible for the transformation of the physical characteristics of bacteria, which subsequently led to its identification as the molecule responsible for heredity
was actively working on the structure of DNA and had already proved that proteins can be helical
proved that adenine and thymine are always the same amount, and guanine and cytosine are the same amount
won the Nobel Peace for contributions in discovering the structure of DNA
Initiated the work on DNA
Worked at King's College
won the Nobel Peace for contributions in discovering the structure of DNA
Also built a 3D DNA model with Crick
built a 3D model representing the structure of DNA
Won nobel peace prize for contributions in discovering the structure of DNA
took the famous x-ray diffraction photo called Photo 51 which helped prove that DNA is helical
sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a specific protein. The human genome contains about 23,000 genes- the average gene is about 3,000 nucleotides long
only about 2% of the genome codes for proteins the other 98% of the DNA that doesn't code for proteins is junk DNA
variant forms of a specific gene
the particular alleles that an organism possesses in its nucleus
physical expression of these alleles
transcription- the transfer of the DNA sequence of a gene into a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA)
translation- of the information on the mRNA into a specific protein.
tRNA(transfer)- deliver amino acids to the ribosome
is the genetic "word" on the mRNA message that directs the addition of specific amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain- each has three letters
on the bottom of the tRNA matches up with the complementary codon on the mRNA
a non-coding section of DNA at the tips of chromosomes that shorten with every cell division.
A diploid cell that is not directly involved in sexual reproduction. A "body" cell.
A haploid cell which will combine with a second haploid cell in the process of fertilization
A structure outside the nucleus two which spindle fibers are attached during cell division
Describes cells that have two copies of each chromosome
Describes cells that have a single copy of each chromosome
One of the two strands of a replicated chromosome.
chromosomes that carry genes for the same traits. The maternal and paternal genes are often different alleles.
After replication, the region of contact between sister chromatids, which occurs near the center of the two strands
A part of the cytoskeleton of a cell, formed in prophase (in mitosis) or in prophase I (in meiosis), they form during cell division that is responsible for moving the chromosomes
The process in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes by which DNA duplicates itself in preparation for cell division.
A mass of long, thin fibers consisting of DNA and proteins in the nucleus of the cell
the fusion of two reproductive cells
a visual display of an individual's full set of chromosomes
A type of reproduction in which offspring are produced by the fusion of gametes from two distinct sexes
A type of reproduction common in prokaryotes and plants, and also occurring in many other multicellular organisms, in which the offspring inherit their DNA from a single parent.
the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes
simply a random shift in the allele frequency of a population's gene pool
A change in the allele frequencies of a population due to the movement of some individuals from one population to another
Migration is also called "Gene Flow"
a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic location
Agents for evolution
2. Genetic Drift
4. Natural Selection
ensures that those organisms with the best combination of traits for a given environment will be most likely to survive and produce offspring. Their genes become more common. The allele frequency of gene pools change; that is evolution
Conditions for Natural Selection
1.there must be variation for a particular trait
2. the variation must be heritable (ie, genetic)
3. different variations should lead to different degrees of success in producing offspring. This is typically called differential reproductive success.
Competition for mates has resulted in the selection of seemingly useless physical traits and behaviors. The males compete to be selected
reproduction of a population that have the same traits. genetic selection, fruit flies, corn
an agent that causes a mutation (radiation, chemicals, etc)
If a new population forms as a result of a few individuals migrating from a different, larger population, the founding individuals will not be able to bring all of the diversity of the gene pool with them. As this new population grows in size it will contain a different mix of genes in its gene pool that will reflect the genes of the founding members
a case where an existing population (and its gene pool) is dramatically reduced in size - typically by some disaster. The few individuals that survive will not possess all of the genes of the original gene pool. As the surviving population grows in size, its gene pool will have substantially less diversity
an organism's fitness is measured compared to others in the population, and it also depends on the organism's environment. The ultimate test of an organism's "fitness" is its contribution to the gene pool of the next generation. Those that pass on more genes to the next generation are the most fit.
are never perfect. They are modifications of existing features. They are "engineered" by random variations and natural selection. To produce a "perfectly" adapted organism, you would need to start from scratch and have a completely non-changing, stable environment. Since environments are constantly changing, a population is always evolving
in the population is needed as the raw material for selection. (Don't forget that the ultimate source of this variation is mutation.) Nature doesn't, however, select individual genes; it selects the "complete package" of genes in an individual
Modes of selection
directional, stabilizing, and disruptive
An embryonic plant with its own supply of water and nutrients, encased with its own coating
Tissue of a mature seed that stores certain carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids that fuel the germination, growth, and development of the embryo and young seedling
Vascular plants that do not produce their seeds in a protective structure
Vascular, seed-producing flowering and fruit-bearing plants, in which the seeds are enclosed in an ovule within the ovary
a series of reciprocal changes in two or more non-interbreeding populations that have a close ecological relationship and act as agents of natural selection for each other, as the succession of adaptations of a predator for pursuing and of its prey for fleeing or evading.
produces an embryo (diploid) and endosperm (triploid)
species that have the same basic structure of a trait and use but do not have a common ancestor
similar structure which shows they might have a common ancestor
when species evolve similarly but in different places
MM or mm
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