Combo with World History Chapter 17 EDDY
Terms in this set (116)
rules discoverable by reason
What is natural law?
"My trade is to say what I think." Who said this?
protect society, administer justice, and provide public works
According to laissez-faire economist Adam Smith, a government should do what?
Physiocrats rejected mercantilism in favor of what policy?
the Scientific Revolution
What event revolutionized thinking and led to the Enlightenment?
Rousseau believed the good of the community as a whole was most important.
How did Jean-Jacques Rousseau's beliefs differ from many Enlightenment thinkers?
Which term describes the love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge?
Who described the era of the 1700s as "enlightened"?
Who is the author of Leviathan?
French thinkers who focused on economics
Who were the physiocrats?
they seemed unscientific and irrational.
During the Enlightenment, the ideas from the Middle Ages were done away with because
The philosophes' slogan, "free and equal," did not apply to women
What difficulty did some women have with the philosophes' ideas?
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Which book is Mary Wollstonecraft known for?
Rulers who did accept some of the new ideas of the Enlightenment, but who continued to hold tremendous power, were called
the Framers of the U.S. Constitution
Which group of people did Montesquieu's ideas affect most?
lighter, elegant, and charming, and was believed to encourage the imagination
How was the rococo style described?
The French government argued that it was an attack on public morals.
How did the French government react to the publication of the first Encyclopedia?
Catherine the Great
Who toyed with implementing Enlightenment ideas while ruling Russia?
Who ruled Austria during the Age of Enlightenment, ending censorship and abolishing serfdom during his reign?
Governments used __________ to protect themselves from the attacks of Enlightenment thinkers.
Where did the British war effort finally collapse?
all government power comes from the people
Describe the principle of popular sovereignty.
France was persuaded to join the Americans.
Why was the American victory in the 1777 Battle of Saratoga significant?
Britain imposed high taxes and controlled trade.
Why did the American colonists resent British rule?
Articles of Confederation
The nation's first constitution was known as the
Treaty of Paris
After signing which of the following documents did Great Britain recognize the independence of the United States?
Who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence?
__________ was a philosopher, scientist, publisher, legislator, and diplomat.
France, Spain, and the Netherlands
Which foreign nations came to the aid of the Americans during the American Revolution?
to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing
Why did Parliament pass the Navigation Acts in the 1600s?
What convinced educated Europeans to accept the power of reason?
Hobbes believed that the government needed to impose order and compel obedience. Locke thought governments should have limited power and be sanctioned by all citizens.
How did Hobbes and Locke differ in their views on the role of government?
an agreement by which people gave up their freedom for an organized society
What was a social contract?
Who was the author of the first set of encyclopedias?
He believed the market would be more productive without government regulation.
Why did Adam Smith support laissez faire?
They engaged in censorship, burning books and imprisoning writers, to restrict access to information.
What did those opposed to Enlightenment ideas do to stop the spread of information?
Informal gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
What were salons?
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Who were enlightened despots?
Art became more elegant and charming; music also became more elegant, with performances more affordable for the middle class; there was an outpouring of novels
How did the arts and literature change as Enlightenment ideas spread?
They wanted reform, they tried to persuade European rulers to accept their ideas, these rulers had the power to effect change
Why were the philosophes interested in sharing their beliefs with European rulers?
imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets
What was the Stamp Act?
Each victory in war brought Britain more lands. In addition, Britain was in a position to control trade.
What led to Britain's rise to global prominence in the mid-1700's?
Colonial prosperity, colonial assemblies having some control over local affairs, and the lack of enforcement of its laws by Britain
In what ways were the colonies already developing independence from Britain?
individual freedom, government by the people, the right to "life, liberty, and property"
What ideas are reflected in the Declaration of Independence?
familiarity with terrain, strong leadership, and determination to achieve their ideals
What advantages did the colonists have in battling Britain for their independence?
power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
What is a federal republic?
Bill of Rights
What are the first ten amendments of the Constitution referred to as?
separation of powers, checks and balances, individual freedom, and government by the people
Explain the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Britain sought to tax the colonies to pay for their defense, while colonists thought Britain had no right to tax them without representation.
How did taxation create tensions between the American colonies and the British government?
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
Right to bear arms
Prohibits quartering of troops in private homes
Protects from unreasonable searches and seizures
No punishment without due process of law
Right to a speedy and public trial in the state where the offense was committed
Right to jury trial for civil cases if over $20
Prohibits excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments
Civil rights are not restricted to those specified by these amendments
Powers not granted to the national government belong to the states and to the people.
List three out of the ten amendments in the Bill of Rights.
THE MOVMT THAT GAVE WAY TO MODERN DAY THINKING, IDENTIFING OURSELVES, OF UNDERSTANDING POLITICS
that of supporting conculsions w/evidence, Astronomy-began unlocking Natural Laws ex:gravity, THE IDEA THAT GOD CREATED EVERYTHING, THE UNIVERSE, HUMAN SOCIETY, HUMANITY. THEN GAVE HUMANS THE ABILITY THRU REASON TO UNDERSTAND NATURE & NATURAL LAWS
What changes in thinking that started with the scientific revolution influenced the transformations in thought of the eighteenth century in what historians call the Enlightenment.
BELIEVED THAT ONCE THEY UNDERSTOOD THESE NATURAL LAWS, THEY COULD PERFECT HUMAN SOCIETY, GOVERNMENT, HUMANITY
Two Treatises on Government & An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke wrote two works published in 1690
Two Treatises on Government & An Essay Concerning Human Understanding are perfect examples of
ARGUED @ 1 TIME PEOPLE LIVED IN A STATE OF NATURE, W/O GOVT INSTITUTIONS, WHERE THEY HAD NATURAL RIGHTS BY BEING BORN BUT INEVITABLEY RECONGNIZED
Two Treatises on Government -
LIFE, LIBERTY & PROPERTY
SOLE PURPOSE OF GOVT IS TO
LOCKE: PROTECT PROPERTY (NATURAL RIGHTS)
SHOWS THERE IS A REASON FOR THEM
LOCKE: USING REASON TO UNDERSTAND WHERE GOVTS COME FROM
IT WAS OBLIGATION OF THE GOVERNED TO OVERTHROW THAT GOVT
LOCKE ARGUED THAT IF GOVT FAILED IN PROTECTION OF THOSE NATURAL RIGHTS,
WERE INSPIRED BY LOCKE
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE & THOMAS JEFFERSON
LOCKE IS TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WHERE OUR KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM, WHERE HUMAN NOTIONS COME FROM
AN ESSAY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING
A TABULA RASA
LOCKE: AT BIRTH THE HUMAN MIND IS
EXPERIENCES & EDUCATION
LOCKE: EVERYTHING WE LEARN /ARE COMES FROM OUR
ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD IS THE AGE OF
1.= most important characteristic of humanity, 2. allowed all to overcome superstition & irrational ideas (ex: established religion), 3. could lead all humanity to perfection & all traditional institutions & ideas should be replaced by reason, 4. was given to humanity by god & made ALL deserving of liberty, equality & justice
LOCKE ARGUED THAT REASON:
ENLIGHTENMENT STARTED IN
Who shaped the Enlightenment?
Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu
3 French philosophes
GOD CREATED UNIVERSE, GAVE NATURAL LAWS. MANS JOB TO UNLOCK NATURAL LAWS THRU REASON
Voltaire's thinking was similar to
THE GENERAL WILL: society & govt should bend toward THE GENERAL WILL (the majority of people & what they want.) Was great unless you were the minority
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
SEPARATION OF POWERS(influenced US ConstitutionTHE SPIRT OF THE LAWS
IDEA OF CHECKS AND BALANCES
Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Mary Wollstonecraft, Adam Smith
Other thinkers of the Enlightenment:
1792,"A Vindication of the rights of Women"
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) in _____, wrote _____________________
Mary Wollstonecraft was from ___________(1759-1797)
Argued if all people had God given, natural rights; then WOMEN SHOULD HAVE THE SAME POLITICAL & EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AS MEN.
"A Vindication of the Rights of Women"
PHYSIOCRAT - STUDIED POLITICAL ECONOMY - ECONOMICS
Adam Smith (1727-1790)
1776, "THE WEALTH OF NATIONS"
Adam Smith (1727-1790), in ____, wrote __________________
ECONOMY governed by natual law of SUPPLY & DEMAND, NO GOVT involvement, FREE MARKETS - allow mkts to wk freely upon laws of supply & demand, if gov't involved the economy would not work the way nature intended
The Wealth of Nations (1776)
the economy/natural law of supply & demand would not work the way that nature intended
Adam Smith said that if government was involved in economic effairs,
it was the birth of liberal thinking/liberalism. (today called classical liberalism)
How Enlightenment influenced politics:
French term that labeled Enlightenment thinkers as free thinkers. Their thoughts were unhampered by the constraints of religion or dogma in any form.
An influence in Englihtenment thinkers, he believed that humans acquired knowledge through experience with the external world.
Famous French enlightenment thinker who was famous for popularizing Newton's work. Published "Philosophical Letters" which criticized France through the obeservations on England.
Wrote "Spirit of the Laws" which characterized different forms of government and admired the British system's separate and balanced powers.
Baron de Montesquieu
Published the Encyclopedia whose purpose was to change the general way of thinking.
Wrote "On Crimes and Punishments" which opposed torture and the death penalty and attacked the view that punishment represented society's vengeance on the criminal.
Treated Jews sympathetically and wrote a play, "Nathan the Wise".
Promoted reform within the Jewish community. Wrote "On the Religious Authority of Judaism" which defended the Jewish religion against Enlightenment criticism.
Opposed mercantilism, wrote "inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" which stated that individuals should pursue their own interests without competition from state chartered monopolies or legal restraints.
Died a grisly death in Hawaii, chartered the coasts of New Zeland, New Holland, New Hebrides and Hawaii.
Wrote, "Personal Narratives of Travels". Attempted to demonstrate that climate and physical environment determined which forms of life would survive in any given region.
Alexander von Humboldt
Radical philosopher who wrote "The Social Contract" which stated that legitimate authority arises from the people. He also wrote "Emile" which stated that women were useful as mothers and wives only.
Critic of Rosseau, believed that education for women promoted liberty and self relience and that women were equal to men in terms of intellect.
A printed system that Enlightenment thinkers used to spread their ideas.
The book trade
Organized by aristocratic women, it was effective in evolving the public sphere and public opinion. It was a place where people could think and criticize freely.
A social aspect during this period where a majority of people were very literate and where the Enlightenment trend became an urban phenomenon.
Protestant baroque composer who wrote many contemporary forms of music.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Composer who mastered Baroque compositions in Italy. Created the oratorio genre. Messiah is considered to be his greatest oratorio.
George Frideric Handel
Termed the "Father of the Symphony", demonstrated the potential of the Symphony.
Wrote his first symphony at age nine, was a keyboard virtuoso. Famous compositions include "The Marriage of Figaro", "Don Giovanni" and "The Magic Flute".
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Rules discoverable by reason, govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful government could keep an orderly society
an agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
an English philosopher who believed the government had a duty to protect certain natural rights and should only stayin power if they do so (from enlightenment)
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property.
What article did Locke right
Two Treatises of Government
movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society, movement that began in Europe in the late 1600s as people began examining the natural world, society, and government; also called the age of reason
group of French thinkers applied the methods of science to understand and improve society. They believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society
relating to a grand, ornate style that characterized European painting, music, and architecture in the 1600s and early 1700s
art moved away from religion and unlike heavy spender of baroque, it was lighter, elegant, and charming encouraged imagination reflected Louis XV less formal lifestyle
Absolute monarch ruled according to ideas of Enlightenment.
What are two reasons for monarchs to use Enlightenment
1. make their country stronger
2.make their rule more effective
who was first servant of the state with new attitudes of bringing king, granted many reforms greater freedoms in religion, speech, and education
kept serfdom because he needed the landowners support
Frederick the Great of Prussia
most admired leader by philosophes
formed a commission to reform laws based on the writings of Diderot and Voltaire-good intentions
abolished torture and allowed religious tolerance
expansion- wanted another seaport-expanded to the Black Sea
Catherine the Great
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