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PSC 120 - Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (40)
The formal institutions and procedures through which a people and its territory are ruled.
Federalists wanted a stronger national government and the ratification of the Constitution to help properly manage the debt and tensions following the American Revolution.
Anti-Federalists were those who opposed the development of a strong federal government and the ratification of the constitution in 1788, preferring instead for power to remain in the hands of state and local governments.
-Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population.
-Proposed a strong national government. Act only on the states not the people directly. Gives Legislative branch to make laws, individual states were not able to make laws stopping trade between two states.
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Powers the Constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government.
powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states.
powers shared by the national and state governments.
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Full Faith and Credit
A clause in Article IV (6) of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of all other states.
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
a federal order mandating that states operate and pay for a program created at the national level
Money awarded to the states by the federal government
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
National, State, Local policy makers work to solve problems involving interdependency together.
A policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
Free Exercise Clause
A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion.
Privilege and Immunities Clause
Prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.
Due Process Clause
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Equal Protection Clause
Constitutional guarantee that everyone be treated equally-14th amendment
a constitutional doctrine that ensures states cannot enact laws that take away the constitutional rights of American citizens that are enshrined in the Bill of Rights
Civil Rights Act
1964; banned discrimination in public accommodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Voting Rights Act
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap.
Title VII (7)
A portion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that prohibits discrimination in hiring, firing, compensation, apprenticeships, training, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin for employers with 15 or more workers.
Title IX (9)
A United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
The distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues
A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals
A person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom.
open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values.
A sample that reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn
A polling error in which the sample is not representative of the population being studied, so that some opinions are over- or underrepresented
The tendency of participants to try to give answers that reflect well upon them
The power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems
The power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted
The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response