Unit Exam #1 Government
Terms in this set (83)
The institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies
State of peace and security
The power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience
Lawfulness or authenticity of something
Process of influencing government
All of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved
The body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
The power to make a law, and to frame public policies
The powers to execute, enforce, and administer law
The power to interpret laws,to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes within the society
A body of people living in a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce laws without the consent of any higher authority
The authority of a state to govern itself or another state
Theory that government was created when one person or a small group took direct control of an area
The theory that government naturally developed out of a family which became a govt.
Divine Right Theory
Theory that god created the state and gave those of royal birth a divine right to rule
Social Contract Theory
Theory that no government existed and no person had superior power. Human beings agree to give the state enough power to manage the state.
A charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent in June 1215 at Runnymede. A document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges
English Bill of Rights
Document written by parliament and agreed on by William and Mary of England in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by english monarchs; forms the basis for much in American government and politics today
Baron de Montesquieu
Came up with separation of powers, and checks and balances
Social contract, Neutral rights/inalienable Rights, life liberty and property
limited government involvement. Indivisible hand the market, when left alone, will achieve an efficient allocation of resources.
A form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people
The people vote directly on political issues and decisions
Elected representatives govern in the interest of the people
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority
A form of government in which a single person holds unlimited political power
A form of government in which the power is held by a small group
a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god. ex- Iran
A system of government in which one person reigns, usually a king or queen. The authority, or crown, is generally inherited. The ruler, is often only the head of state, not the head of government
A centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single central agency
A form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments.
Government where a group of states, nations or territories that are joined together by a central government that has limited powers of authority. With a weaker central government, the individual state or nation governments retain a strong sense of independence.
A form of government in which the Executive and Legislative branches of the government are separate, independent, and coequal
A form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister, or premier, and that official's cabinet.
a legally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized.
An economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on market determined supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.
An economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government
Those powers that can be exercised by the National Government alone.
Those powers that both the national government and the states possess and exercise.
Establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land. Located in article 6 clause 2
Where and when the constitutional convention took place
Articles of Confederation
The original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789
First US President and signer of the Declaration
Fourth president of the US. Wrote the Federalist Papers
An American politician, public official and diplomat. Born into a prominent New York family, he earned election to the state's provincial congress, and signed the Articles of Confederation as a New York delegate to the Continental Congress. Among the most vocal participants of the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Morris argued for granting Congress veto powers over state laws, direct election of the president and proportional representation in Congress based on taxation.
New Jersey Plan
Plan presented as an alternative to the Virginia plan at the constitutional convention; called for a unicameral legislature in which each state would be equally represented
Plan presented by delegates from Virginia at the constitutional convention; called for a three-branch government with a bicameral legislature in which each state's membership would be determined by its population or its financial support for the central government
Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
Small states didn't want larger states to have all the power, however other states wanted the popular vote to determine public policy Roger Sherman introduced a bicameral legislature one with equal representation and one by population
Representation in congress it was decided that slaves would be counted as three fifths of a person when counting Taxation and representation
Pushed for a stronger central government and the ratification of the constitution.
Refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. Pushed for the Bill of Rights to be added so that the federal government wasn't so strong.
Series of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton to sway public opinion towards ratifying the Constitution. Published in New York under the name "Publius"
Opening statement to the U.S. Constitution. This explains why the framers of the constitution made our government a republic
Establishes legislative branch also the longest article
Makes the executive branch of the government. The Executive branch has the responsibility and authority for the administration on a daily basis. In the United States, the executive branch is made up of the President and executive officers.
Creates a judicial branch in the United States. The Judicial branch is the court system that interprets the law. In the United States, the judicial branch includes the Supreme Court and the lower courts which are made by Congress.
Talks about what responsibilities and duties the states have along with what responsibilities the federal government has to each States.
Says that the only way the Constitution can be changed is by adding an amendment.
establishes the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land. Debts against the united states are also still in effect after the adoption of the constitution
at least nine states needed to ratify the Constitution in order for it to be applied to all of the states
Basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed
Basic principle in American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that the government can not take away
Separation of Powers
Basic principle of American system of government that the executive, legislative, and judicial powers are divided among three different and coequal branches of government
Checks and Balances
System of overlapping powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to permit each branch to check the actions of others
The power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a governmental action
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury asked the Supreme Court to make Jefferson give him his commission. The writ of mandamus says the court can order the president, but the court says they do not have the power to do it, therefore the law is unconstitutional, and Marbury does not get his commission. Established Judicial Review
Fourth Chief Justice of the United States
Change in, or addition to, a constitution of law
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship.
Process for amending the Constitution
⅔ vote in each house of congress, or a national convention is called by a ⅔ vote of state legislatures, it is then ratified either by the approval of ¾ of state legislature or by conventions in ¾ of the states.
Most common path to ratification, exception to that path
2/3 vote in each house of congress must agree on the proposal then 3/4 of state legislatures must ratify. 21st Amendment; Proposed by 2/3 votes in each Congress house and then ratified by conventions in 3/4 of the states
A body of advisers to the president, composed of the heads of the executive departments of the government.
Secretary of state
Secretary of treasury
Secretary of defense
The constitution does not address them but they are used every year for the selection of presidential candidates
Those powers, expressed, implied, or inherent, granted to the national government by the Constitution.
Those delegated powers of the national government are spelled out, expressly in the constitution.
Those delegated powers of the national government that are SUGGESTED by the expressed powers in the constitution, those necessary and proper to carry out the expressed powers.
Powers in the constitution is presumed to have delegated to the national government because it is the government of a sovereign state within the world community. "Makes sense for the national government."
Those powers that the constitution does not grant to the National Government and does not deny to the states.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Chief Justice John Marshall wrote the unanimous opinion of the Court. He stated first that the Constitution gave Congress the power to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out the specific powers conferred on Congress in Article I, Section 8. Incorporating Alexander Hamilton's doctrine of broad construction of the Constitution, Marshall wrote, Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are not prohibited, are constitutional. Since the Bank was a lawful instrument of specific
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