SS.912.A.2.5 Assess how Jim Crow Laws influenced life for African Americans and other racial/ethnic minority groups.

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Jim Crow Laws
After the election of 1876 (Hayes/ Rutherford) federal troops left the south. Southern governments enacted various measures aimed at disenfranchising or taking away the voting rights of, African Americans and that also kept them segregated, or apart; some laws separated whites from other minorities as well during the late 1800s, the US Supreme Court continued to issue ruling that undermined civil rights for African Americans and other minorities.
Poll Taxes
Most African Americans could not afford the $1 to $2 voting fee, a requirement that voters pay a tax to vote which originated in Georgia and spread to other Southern states; poorer African Americans could scarcely afford such a fee.
Literacy Tests
Most African Americans could neither read nor write; Southern states also often required voters to pass these and "understanding" tests; since African Americans had been exploited economically and denied an education, these restrictions disqualified many of them as voters.
Grandfather Clauses
Only those whose father or grandfather had voted prior to 1867 could vote; as long as his ancestors had voted prior to 1866 or 1867 another aim at eliminating African American votes.
segregation
the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Guaranteed African American citizens the right to ride trains and use public facilities such as hotels, yet it was left to the court how to interpret and apply these new a laws..
de jure segregation
Racial segregation, that happens by legal requirement. Legal separation of races; predominantly in the South.
de facto segregation
Racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement. For example, often the concentration of African-Americans in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that are predominantly black, or segregated in fact ( de facto ); predominantly in the North.
All white primaries
only whites could vote; a way to disenfranchise African American voters.