SS.912.A.2.6 Compare the effects of the Black Codes and the Nadir on freed people, and analyze the sharecropping system and debt peonage as practiced in the United States.

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Black Codes
Under the lenient Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson, white southerners reestablished civil authority in the former Confederate states in 1865 and 1866; white southerners enacted a series of restrictive laws designed to restrict freedom for former slaves activities and ensure their availability as a labor force now that slavery had been abolished; for instance, many states required blacks to sign yearly labor contracts; if they refused, they risked being arrested as vagrants and fined or forced into unpaid labor.
the Nadir
Often referred to as the period after Reconstruction or from 1890-1920, Literally meaning "the lowest point" or "the time of greatest depression for African Americans
freed people
former slaves after passage of the 13th Amendment and the end of the Civil War.
sharecropping system
This embraced most of the South's African American and white poor, a landowner dictated the crop and provided the sharecropper with a place to live, as well as seeds and tools, in return for a "share" of the harvested crop; the landowner often bought supplies on credit, at very high interest, from a supplier, the landlord passed on theses cost to the sharecropper, sharecroppers were perpetually in debt to the landowner, and the landowner became in debt to the supplier; for the sharecropper this created a kind of debt peonage or bondage.
debt peonage
Under the sharecropper system, creation of a type of bondage by the sharecropper to the landowner; thus the sharecropper could never move because they always owed the owner the labor of next year's crop...
tenant farming
The most independent arrangement for both farmer and landowner; in this case, the tenant paid cash rent to a landowner and then was free to choose and manage his own crop--and free to choose where he would live; this system only useful for a farmer who had some cash to get started...
share-tenancy
a system like sharecropping except that the farmworker chose what crop he would plant and bought his own supplies. Then, he gave a share of the crop to the landowner; this system gave more control over the cost of supplies to the farmworker and with choices the possibility of saving money.
Freedman's Bureau
Established by the Radical Republican Congress in March 1865 to help the former slaves adjust to freedom;
"Black Codes"
Made it illegal in southern states for freemen to travel freely or to leave their jobs; each freedmen had to show their work for the current year which forced the former slaves to stay on plantations as workers; black children could be "apprenticed' to white employers, and black convicts turned over to white employers for hard labor; the aim of the Black Codes was preservation of the Southern society's structure with as little disruption as possible, despite the abolition of slavery.