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IT 330 Final- Metal Packaging
Terms in this set (80)
The whole metal can industry is very ______________.
What four companies control the majority of the can market?
1. Ball Corp.,
2. Rexam PLC,
3. Crown Holdings Inc., &
4. Silgan Holdings Inc.
About how many cans are produced every day?
How significantly are savings from a 1% weight reduction in aluminum?
Common and efficient method of shipment to manufacturing site?
Shipped on Pallets by truck
Sometimes cans are shipped in __________ empty, then reshipped in the same ________ full.
Of the 355 Million Cans per day what is the industry breakdown?
~263 Million Beverage
~ 78 Million Food
~ 14 Million General Packaging
Of the 263 Million Beverage Cans what is Alcoholic vs Non-Alcoholic?
Alcoholic - 92
Non-Alcoholic - 171
Beverage Cans: 220 Billion + Can Market - - - What are the US, Europe, and Rest of World Per Capita?
US Per Capita - 400 Cans
Europe Per Capita - 73 Cans
Rest of World Per Capita - 15
Two main types of Cans?
Two Piece cans and Three Piece cans
Can making metals - What does a SmoothPour End can effectively accomplish and how?
A smooth pour can has modified end features including a large open and a vent tube which directs airflow into the can to deliver a smoother pour and improved drinking experience.
What are the 5 major can making materials?
3. Tin Plate
4. Tin Free Steel
Steel - Steel comes from mined _______, and must be "________" to be useful.
Steel is composed of?
Iron + Carbon (up to 1.5% C)
What are some characteristics of Low Carbon Steel?
Mild, low strength, easy to work with, the packaging container steel.
What are some characteristics of High Carbon Steel?
Hard, Brittle, high strength, used in packaging for cutting tools.
What does high "temper" steel usually mean?
High Carbon Content
The Classification "1020 Steel" means:
10 refers to Iron
20 means .20% carbon
Heavy, strong, cheap, easy to mine and work with, non-toxic, good barrier sown to .5 mil, magnetic, rusts, has "taste"
Rare, Expensive, very easy to work with, can solder, non-toxic, corrosion resistant, good barrier.
Acid Product + Tin --> Tin Salt + Hydrogen; What does the hydrogen cause?
Hydrogen causes bulging in cans and tin salt gives a metallic taste
Tinplate Steel consists of?
Low Carbon Steel + Thin tin Layers (Typically 10 Mil Steel and .01 Mil Tin)
Tin-Free Steel (TFS) consists of?
Low carbon steel + Coating
What does the Coating consist of?
Chromium, Aluminum, and Enamel
TFS can no longer be _________, and must be _______ or __________
Soldered; Welded; Cemented
What is the third most abundant element?
Clay is made up of about ______ % of aluminum.
What is aluminum referred to and why?
Referred to as the "Transportation Metal" because it is 1/3 the weight of Steel and 1/3 the strength
What does Aluminum Alloy with for Strength?
Aluminum is about ___ times more expensive to mine than steel.
Since 1988, price reduction of aluminum due to?
The Russian Supply
Some of Aluminums key properties:
Light, weaker than steel, easy to work with, expensive, non toxic, good barrier down to 1 mil, non-magnetic, does not rust, salt causes corrosion, no "taste," excellent recycle record.
What percentage of all Carbonated Soda Drinks in the world are packaged in cans?
What percentage of all beer in the world is packaged in Cans?
3 piece cans are
perishable food and some beverage applications
(Most popular globally)
2 piece cans are
Beverage and some food applications
2 piece cans are mainly manufactured through what two manufacturing processes?
Draw and Redraw
Draw and Iron manufacturing
What are the two pieces in a 2-piece can?
Seamless body plus top cap.
2-piece cans are most popular in what industry?
U.S. beverage industry
Why is the machinery costly for 2-piece cans?
Because the process stretches metal
2-Piece Can manufacturing consists of 15 basic process
1. Uncoiling and Lubricating
2. Cupping (2500 to 3750/Min)
3. Draw-Redraw or Draw-Iron
4. Trimmed to Height
5. Washing & Drying
6. Printing and Coating
7. Baking and Curing
8. Internal Coating
9. Baking and Curing
10. Necking & Flanging
11. Dome Forming
12. Inspection for Leakage
14. Can-End Stamping
15. Easy-open tab assembly
What is the difference between Draw and Re-Draw and Draw and Iron
Draw and Redraw just stretches the plastic by re plunging a plunger in more narrow crevices till the proper length of can is reached. Draw-Iron has the Ironing ring there the steel cup is simply elongated once by plunger using ring.
Draw and Iron:
the Original Drawn Cup is inserted into ironing die then a punch stretches the material and a bottoming tool is used to shape the bottom.
Typical Draw and Iron Standards:
Blank metal Sheet - 140mm Diameter
Cup - 90 mm Diameter
Re-Draw (First draw after cup) - 66 mm Diameter
Initial Trim - 124 mm High
Neck & Flange - 122 mm High
What are the main process in Can End Manufacturing?
Ends are fed through a high-precision press where rivet making, scoring, and tabbing occur in progressive operations.
What are the three components to a three piece can?
Cylinderical Shell, Top Cap, Bottom Cap
True or False? 3-piece cans are the most popular world wide?
Why are 3-piece cans so cheap to produce?
Because all pieces made from flat sheets with no stretching
Side seam on cylinder closed by?
"Hook and Solder"
Other 3 ways that the cylinder of 3-piece tin cans are sealed?
1. Mechanical Clinch
3. Adhesive Bonded (cemented Seam)
With 3 piece cans "Welding,"
is melting together the base metal
How many 3 Piece cans are manufactured in a minute?
How are 3-Piece cans tested for leaks?
Using air pressure and light
3-peice can has 12 basic operations:
8. End Seaming
11. Final Curing
What are the production Setup Costs for 3-Piece cans?
What are the production and Setup costs for a 2-piece Draw and ReDraw?
What are the production and Setup costs for a 2-piece Draw and Iron?
Some Visual Identification methods of Can Type are?
3-piece can has side seam, 2 Piece does not
2-Piece DI has parallel vertical stretch lines (Look inside)
2-Piece DRD has parallel vertical and concentric stretch lines
2-Piece DRD is usually thicker than 2 piece DI
Some unique can designs are?
Shell can be ribbed/ringed/bumped/beaded for added buckling strength against compression, vacuum
What feature does a can have if it is to be pressurized?
Bottom has "dome" shape
What are the Consumer Market Bottle Can Trends?
On-the-go Usage Occasion
What are the Consumer Appeal Bottle Can Trends?
Reclosable and portable
Exceptional display for custom Graphics
Shelf and brand differentiations for products
What are the Consumer Markets for Laser Incised Tabs?
Differentiates any beverage product
Additional branding Touchpoint
What are the Consumer Appeal for Laser incised Tabs?
Fun and Interactive
What are Consumer Markets for Widget Can for Foaming Beverages?
What are Consumer Appeals for Widget Can for foaming Beverages?
Indulge in rich foaming coffee, milk and beer drinks
Enjoy taste sensation like no other canned beverage
Serve yourself, and all your friends, in style
Other common types of trends:
Promotional Printing on Ends
Punch out tabs
Groups Most Likely to Prefer Cans: What Average percentage of the population Buys cans most of the time?
What average percentage of the population Buys plastic bottles most of the time?
Reasons why you are more likely to buy sodas in cans?
Cheaper, On Sale - 27%
Easier to carry, hold - 19%
Size, Individual Serving - 18%
Easily recycled - 15%
Convenience - 15%
For all the following Can is better except?
On Sale Frequently
Easy to Carry
Keeping Drink Fresh
In regards to recycling and resealing which is more important to what groups?
Recycling - Age 60/Over
Resealing - Any age below 60, especially 18-29
What is the common trend between age and recycling?
As Age increases likelihood to recycle increases
What states are most likely to recycle?
Global Benchmarks for Aluminum can recycling:
USA - 52%
Global Average- 60%
Denmark/Norway/Sweden - 88%
Japan - 90.9%
Brazil - 94.4%
Today the 11 bottle bill states account for _______ of recycled bottles in the U.S. Michigan, with a _______ cent deposit, has recycling rates close to 100%
60% ; 10 Cent
How many days does it take for Aluminum cans to go from consumers hand through recycling and back to retail?
What are the steps to Life cycle of Aluminum Can?
1. Bauxite Extraction
2. Alumina Refining
3. Primary Smelting
4. Ingot Casting
6. Can manufacturing
Compared to virign aluminum, recycled aluminum only takes _____ percent of the energy, ______ percent less green house gas emissions.
5% ; 95%
Aluminum cans are valued at ______ dollars per ton
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