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CLCV Exam 2 Part 2
Terms in this set (59)
What was the first First Triumvirate?
This was a (initially) secret pact among the three men (Caesar, Crassus, Pompey) to leave aside partisan politics and put aside their differences.
A gay threesome.
What was the Family of Julii's Ancestry?
Iulus or Ascanius was the son of Aeneas, son of Anchises and Venus. Therefore Iulus was the ancestor of the family of the Julii; therefore Venus was their ancestress; therefore they claimed descent from the immortal gods! (Caesar was in this family)
Caesar's a godd
What were Caesar's debts?
Caesar was a very ambitious man from the very beginning, but in order to achieve what he wanted he incurred huge debt through partisan favors. Crassus was helping him out occasionally, as long as Caesar would oppose Pompey and keep him at bay.
Bitch be other's bitches.
Populares vs Optimates
Caesar was a supporter of the people (POPULARES) and Pompey was a supporter of the conservative wealthy (OPTIMATES).
Conservative Wealthy = Optimates. Naperville = Conservative Wealthy. Naperville = Optimates. Naperville = OPTIMUS PRIME TRANSITION PROPERTY ZING
Pompey came from a wealthy family, but without the necessary patrician background to climb up the ladder easily.
Pompey proves to be a skilled general: he secures the island of Sicily (Rome's supplier of grain); he helps with the suppression of Spartacus' revolt; he rid the Mediterranean of the problem of
piracy; he won the war against King Mithridates of Pontus.
Supporter of Optimates, made first permanent theater in Rome.
IN FRICKIN NAPERVILLE BORN AND RAISED OUTPLAYING BAD GUYS WHERE I SPENT MOST OF MY DAYS. SUPPORTING MY OPTIMATES ALL COOL AND I MAKE THE FIRST THEATER AND MAKE PEOPLE DROOL.
Battle at Carrhae, death of Crassus
Crassus campaigns in the East in Syria, and in 53 BCE the Parthians trap the Roman army in Carrhae, kill 30,000 men, including Crassus who was beheaded and his head was taken to the Parthian court for display.
According to one account, the Parthians poured molten gold in this mouth: this symbolized his "thirst for wealth"!
Bitch be greedy. Already had Syria and still wanted to expand? That's like taking 2 turrets and going for an inhibitor.
Caesar's Gallic campaigns
Caesar fought the Gauls for 8 years. Eventually in 52 BC, Vercingetorix surrendered in dramatic terms by putting his best armour on, and adorning his horse, rode out of the gates, and made a turn about Caesar as he was sitting, then quitting his horse, threw off his armor, and remained quietly sitting at Caesar's feet until he was led away to be reserved for the triumph.
Vercingetorix was brought to Rome, imprisoned in the Tullianum and executed in Caesar's triumph in 46 BCE
Vercingetorix? Sounds liek the most evil name ever...who names their kid that...
Caesar crosses the Rubicon; "the dice has been cast"
Since Caesar's consulship term had ended and Pompey was in power, he feared he'd be prosecuted when he came back from the Gauls. So he crossed the Rubicon and marched against Rome just like Sulla.
Battle at Pharsalus
Caesar's army pursues Pompey eastwards. The final battle takes place in Greece, at Pharsalus in 48 BCE.
Pompey was defeated and having lost most of his army finds refuge in Egypt, at the court of King Ptolemy XIII and his sister Cleopatra.
But Egyptian allegiance to Caesar prevails, and as soon as Pompey lands there, he was decapitated at the order of King Ptolemy XIII.
So much shitttt just happened that this has to be phars (LIKE FALSE HEHE IM BAD WITH PUNS)
Campaigns in the Mediterranean, "I came, I saw, I conquered"
He spends enough time in Egypt to become involved
with Cleopatra and father a child, Caesarion.
He also campaigns throughout the Mediterranean:
VENI, VIDI, VICI: "I CAME, I SAW, I CONQUERED!"
slides say nothing about his campaigns besides the quote...
Caesar's dictatorship; 44 BCE
In February 44 BCE, the dictatorship was
converted into a permanent one. Caesar was
now dictator perpetuus.
Caesar's clemency; Julian Calendar; Temple to Venus Genetrix
Caesar modifies the calendar: Julian Calendar. .
He builds a Temple to Venus Genetrix ("Venus the Mother").
Caesar pardonned his defeated enemies and showed clemency.
Lupercalia of 44 BCE: crowning of Caesar by Antony
At the festival of the Lupercalia, in February 44 BCE, Mark Antony attempted to crown Caesar with a diadem of laurel, symbol of kingship... Caesar orders Antony to take the crown to the Temple of Jupiter who was the only "king of the Romans.
March 15, 44 BCE: assassination; Brutus and Cassius; "and you, child?"
Plot formed, conspirators gathered: 60 or so with two leaders
• Marcus Iunius Brutus
• and his brother-in-law Gaius Cassius Longinus
March 15, 44 BCE: meeting of the Senate to take place at Pompey's theater. Caesar was murdered and fell at the foot of a statue of Pompey, stabbed 23 times. Many traditions concerning his last words: "And you, child?
Causes of Caesar's assassination
Dissatisfaction of the Senate with the title "Dictator Perpetuus"
Long period of civil wars weakened government structure, twoconsuls no longer capable of ruling together, one usually left to do the job
Cicero and the murders; hatred for Antony; Lepidus
Cicero was an opponent of Caesar and his right hand man, Mark Antony, whom he hated, but the day before the Ides, the murderers had decided to spare Antony for now, who was the other consul of the year.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was the commander of the troops in Rome
and replaces Caesar as pontifex maximus.
Octavian was the son of Caesar's niece Atia, who was the daughter of Caesar's sister, Julia. Known commonly as Augustus. He is the
first Emperor of Rome.
His adoptive name is Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. He way away from Rome and came back to claim his inheritance because Caesar adopted him.
Brutus and Cassius leave Rome
Whereas a compromise is reached in the Senate initially to take no action against the murderers, Antony excites the crowds against Brutus and Cassius who are driven away from the city.
funeral of Caesar
The mob who was considering Caesar an ally and friend becomes violent during the funeral, they drag the body to the pyre in the Roman Forum, they place on the pyre, clothes, even furniture, and they are out of control.
Like Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar had done in 60 BCE when the First Triumvirate was formed, so Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian create the same type of alliance (ALO)
order to kill them without trial, meaning the assassins of Caesar
death of Cicero
Cicero had been composing speeches against Antony for a long time. In December of 43 BCE, Cicero was put to death at his villa outside Rome. He was beheaded, and his hands were cut off; the head and hands were displayed in the Forum, at the speaker's platform, the Rostra.
Damn that's brutal.
Deification of Caesar
In the year 42 BCE, the Senate decided to declare that the murdered Caesar had become a god. He had joined his ancestors, Iulus, Aeneas, Anchises, and Venus in heaven. In fact his soul had become a comet, a star. He is declared DIVUS, that is, "DIVINE".
Octavian is now son of a God
Battle of Philippi 42 BCE
The armies of Brutus and Cassius and of Antony and Octavian face one another in a battle at Philippi in 42 BCE. Both Brutus and Cassius commit suicide.
Antony in the East
Antony undertakes to campaign in the East. In 41 he meets
Cleopatra of Egypt, probably not for the first time.
Antony marries Octavia
In 40 BCE, Antony's wife, Fulvia, died, and Octavian offered as Antony's new wife, his sister Octavia. Mark Antony fathered two children (daughters) from Octavia. Both named
Antonia: Antonia the Younger and Antonia the Elder
Antony fathers three children with Cleopatra
Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene, Ptolemy
Marriage with Octavia complications
In 34 BCE, Octavian sends Octavia to Egypt, but Antony stops her in Athens and instructs her not to come to Alexandria. Their relationship is now officially complicated: even if they divorced, he could never get married to a foreigner like Cleopatra
Back off bitch i like foreigners
31 BCE, Battle at Actium
Navy battle between Octavian vs. Cleopatra & Antony
At some point during the battle, the Egyptians with Cleopatra and Antony decide to burst through and flee to Alexandria quickly (we do not know why). The remaining Egyptian forces give up fight quickly afterwards.
30 BCE, Antony's and Cleopatra's deaths
Octavian pursues Antony and Cleopatra and comes to Egypt with his forces. The city falls, and Antony commits suicide, perhaps in reaction to false report that Cleopatra had done the same.
•Cleopatra was captured and spared. But in 9 days, she also commits suicide to avoid being paraded as a spectacle in Octavian's triumph in Rome. Uses venom from cobra to bite her breast or drank poison.
Fate of Cleopatra's children
Caesarion (Caesar and Celo's kid) was put to death, but the three children of Antony and Cleopatra were brought to Rome and
placed in the care of Octavia.
Deeds of Divine Augustus/Res Gestae
Just before his death, Octavian Augustus composed a
document known as "The Deeds of Divine Augustus" or Res Gestae.
• This document was engraved on two bronze pillars and set up in front of his tomb, which was a gigantic round tomb, known as the Mausoleum.
• In this document, Augustus recounts all his accomplishments, from ending the civil wars to building several monuments in Rome, and how much money he spent on each.
Triple Triumph of 29
Octavian celebrated a magnificent triple triumph in Rome in the year 29 BCE to mark the end of the wars: conquest of Illyria, Egypt, and victory at Actium.
decoration of Rostra
Augustus had captured 10 warships and used the beaks to decorate the Rostra, the speaker's platform at the Forum.
Title of Augustus in 27
In January 27 BCE, Octavian assumes the title of Augustus, which means "Revered," and the sixth month of the calendar is named after him. It was called "sextilis" before, now it is called "August". Likewise, the fifth month is named after Julius Caesar as "July".
First Settlement in 27
Augustus asks the Senate to give him a 10-year term: he became in
charge of Spain, Syria, Gaul, Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt. He
asked to be reelected every year as consul.
• So Augustus would be one of the consuls automatically, and
then the second consul would be elected as normal. (10 yr consulship)
Second Settlement in 23
Augsutus chose to be called princeps, that is, "leading figure."
As such, Augustus possessed a type of influence called auctoritas, "authority, influence." And he could do pretty much whatever he wanted. Therefore we call Augustus the first Emperor of Rome.
Before the expiration of his 10-year consulship that began in 27 BCE, in 23 BCE Augustus decides to revise some of his powers. He gives up the consulship and assumes perpetual tribunician power, because he wants to present himself as an ally of the common people
And in 12 BCE, the people call him "Father of the Country" (Pater Patriae).The people like Augustus so much that he is allowed to walk around in the clothes of a consul, even though he was not consul for ever.
Roman Peace, Augustan Peace (PAX ROMANA, PAX AUGUSTA)
Until his death in 14 CE, Augustus maintains stability in the empire. Even though wars were still waged against the barbarians, there is no more civil war. This long period between 31 BCE and 14 CE (45 years) is known as the period of Augustan Peace, or Roman Peace (PAX ROMANA, PAX AUGUSTA).
"I found a city of bricks, I left a city of marble"
As Augustus says in his Deeds, he built several new monuments in Rome, while he restored many others. As his biographer Suetonius reports, Augustus used to say: "I found a city of bricks, and I left a city of marble."
Forum of Augustus
Augustus expands the Roman Forum with the addition of a new Forum, which is called the Forum of Augustus.
Temple of Mars the Avenger
Augustus builds the Temple of Mars the Avenger, Temple of Mars the Avenger. Mars, the god of war, helped Augustus defeat his enemies (Antony).
Altar of Peace (ARA PACIS)
He also builds the Altar of Peace (ARA PACIS), which was
to remind the Romans of the achievements of Augustus, and especially the peace now enjoyed by everyone in the empire.
Augustus builds his own tomb, called the Mausoleum, a round, circular tomb. His whole family was to be buried there.
Augustan legislation on marriage and adultery
In 18 BCE, Augustus passes legislation for the men and
women who do not marry (aged 25-60 for the men and 25-
50 for the women):
• Penalties are imposed in terms of taxation.
• Rewards are given to those who bear children.
• Men have to prosecute their wives if caught in
• Divorce rates increase.
Julia, daughter of Augustus
Augustus had a daughter, Julia, from his marriage to Scribonia
Livia, wife of Augustus
In 38 BCE, Augustus divorced Scribonia and married Livia Drusilla, who was going to remain his wife until he died in 14 CE.
Livia comes from the family of the Claudians; Augustus comes from the family of the Julians. So the sucessors of Augustus are said to belong to the JulioClaudian family.
Tiberius, son of Livia
When she married Augustus, Livia had two sons, Tiberius and
Drusus, from her first husband. She is generally portrayed as a
manipulative wife who wants to promote her sons and do away with
Julia as soon as possible.
Agrippa and Julia
Julia marries Agrippa and have 5 children but only two are male: Gaius and Lucius
Julia's adultery and exile
Augustus is desperate to find a successor!
• His hopes rest with the grandsons, Gaius and Lucius.
• But Lucius dies in 2 CE and Gaius in 4 CE: no one left but
• Augustus hates him, but Livia had prevailed.
• She had arranged that Julia's escapades with several
men of Rome became widely known. Augustus was
forced to use his own laws on adultery to punish his own
daughter: she dies disgraced in exile. Julia and Tiberius
produced no children.
14 CE death of Augustus; hereditary succession
In 14 CE, after 45 years in power as emperor of Rome,
Augustus dies at the old age of 77.
• Livia makes sure that a story is divulged that Augustus
asked Tiberius to succeed him as ruler of the empire.
From now on, succession will be hereditary and not by
Virgil, the Aeneid
Virgil was a poet who became famous for his epic poem, the Aeneid.
The poem recounts the travels of Aeneas from Troy to Italy, where his
descendants, Romulus and Remus, founded Rome.
Aeneas' trip from Troy to Italy through Carthage
Aeneas was the son of Anchises and Venus, so he is the son of a
Aeneas had a son, Ascanius or Iulus, who is the founder of the family
called the Julians.
Augustus and Aeneas
In the Forum of Augustus, Augustus builds a Temple to Mars the Avenger.
Statues in the Temple showed the ancestors of Augustus: Venus, Aeneas, Romulus, Julius Caesar.
Augustus clearly emphasizes his lineage that comes from the gods; his rule is also sanctioned by the gods, because he is their son. And when he dies, like his father Julius Caesar, he will become Divine Augustus. He is deified.
Aeneas' foundation of Rome ordered by the gods
In his poem, Virgil emphasizes how Aeneas is ordered by the
gods to leave Troy and create the new city on a new
Juno, Jupiter's wife, hates the Trojans: story of Paris and the three
Storm: Aeneas in Carthage
Juno stirs the seas, and during the storm, the Trojans are shipwrecked from Sicily to Carthage
Queen of Carthage when Carthage is being built. Welcomes Aeneas when he gets shipwrecked onto Carthage. Is a widow but falls in love with Aeneas. Their story is tragic like Antony and Cleopatra.
The story of Dido and Aeneas
Dido be like "Damn I love you Aeneas, let's get dirty. **** nvm I'm a widow"
Then Venus be all like "Its okay sistah, I'll make this storm so you and Aeneas can meet in a cave and get married"
Then Jupiter be like "uhhh uhhh oi Mercury, get down there and tell Aeneas to pick his lazy ass up and go make Rome"
So Aeneas did and started to pack his bags up but Dido be like "wtf man I love you. You leavin? Kay, i kill myself now"
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