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Research Methods CH 4
Terms in this set (41)
Identify an accurate statement about variables
Any variable must have two or more levels or values
The ____ of a variable is the set of procedures used to measure or manipulate it
The adequacy of the operational definition of variables is referred to as ______
Which are the most common relationships found between variables in research?
-Positive linear relationship
-Negative linear relationship
In a positive linear relationship between variables, increases in the values of one variable are _____
Accompanied by increases in the values of the other variable
In a negative linear relationship between variables, increases in the values of one variable are ______
Accompanied by decreases in the value of the other variable
In a curvilinear relationship between variables, the direction of the relationship changes at least once. This type of relationship is sometimes referred to as an _______
The term uncertainty implies that there is randomness in events; scientists refer to this as _____ in events that occur
Unlike the non experimental method, the researcher in the experimental method _____
Manipulates the first variable of interest and then observes the response
As the non experimental method allows us to observe covariation between variables, another term that is frequently used to describe this procedure is the ______
Which of the following are problems associated with making causal statements when the non experimental method is used in research?
-The elimination of confounding variables
-Determining the direction of cause and effect
The problem of some other variable causing a relationship between two variables, which do not have any direct causal relationship between them, is known as the _____ problem
Match the variables of the experimental method with their appropriate descriptions
-Independent: the variable that is manipulated
-Dependent: the variable that is measured
Third variables can be a serious problem because they introduce _____, which reduces the overall validity of a study
An alternative explanation
Which of the following is a characteristic of experimental methods
The attempt to eliminate the influence of all potential confounding third variables on the dependent variable
In experimental control, if a variable is held constant, it _____
Cannot be responsible for the results of the experiment
Randomization in an experimental method ensures that _____
An extraneous variable is just as likely to affect one experimental group as it is to affect the other group
Which of the following eliminates the influence of any extraneous variables in a study?
-Direct experimental control
The ability to draw conclusions about casual relationships from the results of a study is termed _____
Identify an accurate statement about the use of non experimental methods
It is difficult to determine which variable causes the other
The process of keeping all extraneous variables constant in an experiment is called _____
Identify a characteristic of randomization
It can control any variable that cannot be held constant
When the experimental method is used to study the relationship between variables, there is _____
Less ambiguity about the direction of cause and effect
Match the variables with the respective axes on which they are placed when the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable is plotted in a graph
-Independent: horizontal axis
-Dependent: vertical axis
In the context of the relationship between variables, match the following variables with their appropriate description
-Independent: considered the cause
-Dependent: considered he effect
A characteristic of a field experiment is that the independent variable is investigated in a _______
The term ____ was coined to describe research in which groups are formed on the basis of some actual difference rather than through random assignment as in an experiment
Ex post facto design
When researchers develop measures designed to predict future behavior, they must _____
Conduct research to demonstrate that the measure relates to the behavior in question
Which are the ways through which a researcher attempts to control extraneous variables in an experiment?
When choosing a method for conducting a research experiment, complete understanding of any phenomenon requires study using
Multiple methods, both experimental and non experimental
In the case of no relationship between variables, unrelated variables vary ______
Independently of one another
In a curvilinear relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of the other variable. Due of this type of correlation between variables, curvilinear relationship is also called a(n) _____ function.
Jim, a psychiatrist, is developing a method to study mood swings in individuals. He asks individuals to describe the frequency and intensity of mood swings and rates them on a scale of 1 to 10. He desires to develop treatment plan according to average outcomes of frequency and intensity of mood swings. In this context, Jim is trying to _____ the variable "mood swing."
In the context of relationship between variables, when the graph is simply a flat line, it shows that there is _____ between the two variables.
In the context of validity, when examining a single study, we find internal validity to be generally in conflict with _____ validity.
Margaret, a researcher, desires to conduct a field experiment to determine the effects of a shopping mall's ambience on consumer purchase behavior. However, she has to deal with other influencing factors such as noise, crowd, and space distribution. She desires to avoid them by using randomization. In this context, noise, crowd, and space are _____ variables.
A psychologist had one group of participants eat ice cream that was packaged in a red carton, whereas another group of participants ate the same flavored ice cream packaged in a green carton. Participants then indicated how much they liked the ice cream on a 1-5 rating scale. The independent variable in this experiment is the _____.
Color of the carton
A researcher finds that the more a song is played on the radio, the greater the liking for the song. However, she also finds that if the song is played too much, people start to dislike the song. In the context of relationship between variables, what type of relationship exists between the song and its likeness factor?
A psychologist develops a measure of self-esteem in order to study the variable of self-esteem. He then conducts a number of studies investigating the differences between candidates who score low and candidates who score high on self-esteem. He does so to devise an accurate method of studying self-esteem. In this case, the psychologist is trying to establish _____.
A researcher desires to understand the effect of child abuse on an individual's personality and attitude. He forms two groups of participants for the study. The first group contains people who were abused during their childhood and the second group contains people who had normal childhood. This type of division of people based on actual differences rather than through random assignment is called _____ design.
Ex post facto
Which of the following statements is true of the nonexperimental method?
The problem of direction of cause and effect is not the most serious drawback to the nonexperimental method.
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