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Anatomical flow through the GI tract
Mouth, espohagus, stomach, small intestine (pancreas, gall bladder & liver dump into sm int), and large intestine
Breakdown of lg food molecules to smaller by the means of
Physical (mechanical) and chemical
Process of taking digested products through the intestinal wall into the intestinal cell and then releasing into the body
Chemical digestion requirement
Emzymes and water for hydrolysis to breakdown the different macronutrients (bonds)
Function of sphincters
Control the flow of food from one digestive organ to the next.
Circular muscles that close off one digestive organ from another
Muscular action causing physical digestion of food by breaking down into smaller pieces
Desire to consume specific foods - due to smells, stress eating, sensoral or emotional need for food
Hormone produced by sm intestine and released into the blood in response to presence of acidic chyme
Hormone produced by the small intestine and released into the blood in response to fat and proteins
Stimulates the secretion of bile from the gall bladder and digestive fluids from the pancreas while slowing GI mobility
Digestive steps that occur in the mouth
Physical - chewing & tongue mixes saliva and food
Chemical - Salivary amylase digests complex CHO (grains, veggies, beans, nuts and seeds)
Digestive steps in the stomach
Physical - Muscles churn bolus into chyme
Chemical 1 - HCL denatures protein
Chemical 2 - Pepsin digest protein into smaller chains
Digestive steps of small intestion
P - Segmentation
C 1 - Pancreatic bicarbonate to neutralize HCL
C 2 - Bile emulsifies (mixes) fat and water (liver & gall bladder)
C 3 - Pancreatic enzymes digest macronutrients
C 4 - Small intestinal cells produce disaccarides & peptisases
What part of the GI tract is responsible for the greatest amount of absorption
Small intestine / duodenum - due to its structure
Requires ATP and has a transporter for nutrient - most effective
(glucose and amino acids)
Water soluble nutrient path as leave intestine and released to body cells
Bloodstream and taken to liver via portal vein then heart
Fat soluble nutrient path as leaves intestine and released to body cells
Transported through the lymph, bypasses liver and directly to heart and then ultimately the blood
Primary systems responsible for regulating digestion and absorption
Nervous - provide sensory info - distention and muscle action
Endocrine - hormonal regulation of digestion by GI & brain (hypotha)
Starts before 1st bite - hunger feeling/ body ready to receive food, thoughts of food stimulate release digestive enzymes, olfactory receptors detect aroma and trigger organs to be ready to receive food
Gastric juices contain
HCL (denature protein & activates pepsin), pepsin (digest protein), gastric liapase (digest fat), and intrinsic factor
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