Terms in this set (49)
Served as the western boundary for british colonial settlements prior to tye Revolutionary War.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Border established by Great Britain in order to avoid conflicts between American colonists and Native Americans
Declaration of Independence
States the colonial grievances against British rule (a list of reasons for separating from Great Britain).
Settled a dispute over how the states would be represented in the national legislature aka Congress (group of people who write and vote on laws). Delegates from states with small populations supported the idea of equal representation for the states in the national legislature (ex New Jersey). Delegates from states with large populations supported the idea of representation based on the size of population (ex Virginia).
Solution of Great Compromise
Created a bicameral legislature (two houses that write and vote on laws). One house would be based on population (House of Representatives) and the other house would have equal representation for all states (Senate).
Thomas Paine Published Common Sense
which was influential in persuading American colonists to support colonial independence from Britain. Convinced many Americans who had been undecided on declaring independence from Britain.
Sugar and Stamp Acts
tax foreign molasses and printed material
Quartering Act of 1765
required colonists to house and feed British soldiers.
taxes imported goods and tea. Boston Massacre-five people killed by British soldiers.
• Revolutionary War begins shortly after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
• American Colonies win the war and independence with the help of familiar land and foreign aid (France).
• At the end of the Revolutionary War the Mississippi became the western boundary of the U.S.
Economic policy used by the British in which the American Colonies served as a source of raw materials and a market to sell goods. British buy raw materials from the colonies and sell them finished products. Limited manufacturing in America. Limited colonies' trade with other nations. This policy would eventually become one of the reasons for the American Revolution.
The President of the U.S. and his cabinet.
Federal Courts and Supreme Court
Jim Crow Laws
1870's 1880's • Attempts by state and local governments to restrict the freedoms of African Americans after the end of the Civil War. • Led to an increase in violations of the rights of African-Americans. • Limited the effectiveness of the 13th, 14th , and 15th amendments. • Provided the legal basis for racial segregation in the late 19th century (late 1800's)
U.S. Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) Supreme Court case that upheld the Jim Crow Laws based on the idea that the laws provided "separate but equal" public facilities for African Americans. This was based on a narrow interpretation of the 14th amendment. Jim Crow Laws would not be ended until the passage of the Civil Rights Act 1964.
Checks and Balances
Each of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) checks the other to ensure that no one branch has too much power.
system of farming most common in Southern States after the Civil War. Large numbers of former slaves earned a living by becoming sharecroppers on Southern farms, keeping them economically dependent on those farms (they still needed the same farms to survive even though they were no longer slaves).
Brown v. Board of Education
Required the integration (desegregation) of all public schools in the U.S. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson ruling of "separate but equal." Says that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." Demonstrates that the Supreme Court can change an earlier decision.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Leader of the civil rights movement during the 1960's. • Believed that civil disobedience (nonviolent protest) is sometimes necessary to bring about change. • Believed that unjust laws must be disobeyed and the consequences accepted peacefully. • Was against using violence to express frustration in achieving racial equality. • Led the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. • Wanted to replace racial segregation with an integrated society.
Civil right leader during 1950's and 60's that advocated black separatism.
Practiced civil disobedience by refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama. 27
Civil Rights Act 1964
1964 Passed in an effort to correct racial and gender discrimination. Ended the Jim Crow laws.
1862- Promoted development of western lands by providing free land to settlers. Demonstrated the federal government's commitment to the settlement of western territories.
Voting Rights Act
1954 Removed the literacy test as a voting qualification because different standards of literacy had been applied to different groups of voters. Attempted to remove racial barriers within voting.
Overproduction of Farm Crops
Demand for American farm goods dropped dramatically during the 1920's because European need for imported farm products declined after WWI. Owners of small family farms experienced the most severe economic problems during the 20's.
Trickle Down Economics
Believed that economic growth depends on making increased amounts of capital available to business. Provided incentives to stimulate business growth. Used tax cuts to encourage economic growth. Lowered federal income tax rates.
Use of the assembly line in the production of automobiles led directly to a decrease in the cost of automobiles. Growth of the automobile industry changed the economy by stimulating the development of other new industries.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 Limited the amount of Chinese immigrants entering the U.S. An example of Nativism.
Group of Americans who were angry about Immigrants taking jobs from Americans and working for cheaper wages. Wanted the adoption of a quota system to limit immigration.
Passage of the immigration quota acts of 1921 & 1924
restricted the amount of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe) because of a recurrence of nativist attitudes following WWI (Americans became more fearful and hateful of foreigners being communists).
Where buyers and sellers interact (directly or through intermediaries) to trade goods, services, or contracts or instruments, for money or barter.
A company that controls or dominates an industry in order to eliminate competition and control prices.
(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People- Focused on higher education, full political participation, and continued support for civil rights. Challenged school segregation.
Uneven distribution of income
between the rich and poor (people were either really rich or really poor).
• Rapid, worldwide spread of the Great Depression of the 1930's was evidence of global financial interdependence (economies all over the world are tied to each other and depend on each other. If one falls they all fall).
-FDR and the New Deal • Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)
• Most immediate goal was to provide work for the unemployed. • Tried to stimulate economic recovery by creating public works jobs.
• Social welfare programs were expanded.
• Agricultural Adjustment Acts- Designed to increase prices of farm products by reducing farm output.
• Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 1933- Created to improve economic conditions in a poor rural region. An example of federal intervention to meet regional needs.
• Social Security Act 1935- Considered an important program because it extended support to elderly/retired citizens. • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)- Tried to restore public confidence in banks. Safeguards savings (government insures the money you have in the bank so that you can't lose it if the bank fails).
• Declared a bank holiday (1933) in order to restore confidence in the nation's banks.
• WPA- Intended to help unemployed workers.
• Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)- Intended to help unemployed workers.
• Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)- Regulates certain economic activities of banks and the stock market. Develops rules to limit speculation. Designed to correct abuses in the stock market.
• National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)- Strengthened labor unions because it legalized collective bargaining. Labor movement grew rapidly during the 1930's once the right to organize was protected by law. Opposition to New Deal
Law that officially gave citizenship to African Americans and legally protected them under the Bill of Rights and U.S. Constitution.
Caused by over-farming and severe drought. The Great Plains (flat farming center of the U.S.) suffered most directly from the Dust Bowl. Resulted in increased westward migration (people in the Great Plains moved west in order to find a better living).
• Stock Market Crash of 1929
Considered the start of the Great Depression. Largely caused by speculators that purchased shares of stock on margin with borrowed funds (bought stocks on credit).
Overproduction and underconsumption
U.S. businesses and factories were making more products than the U.S. people could buy). Consumer demand was low, while industrial production was high.
Law that granted African Americans voting rights. Southern States collected poll taxes and required literacy tests in order to keep African Americans from exercising their voting rights.
Legislative Branch (AKA-Congress)
(House of Representatives and Senate) Group of representatives from each state that propose, write, vote on laws, approve treaties.
Idea that the U.S. should possess the entire continent. • Used to support westward expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific Ocean. • Used as an excuse to expand into lands claimed by other nations. • Led to the annexation of Texas, and the Mexican War.
many products in order to fight the war (ex: guns, supplies, transportation).
(1865) Law that formally abolished slavery in the U.S.
1849- Resulted in an increase in westward migration. Led to the growth of the populations of California and the western territories
Louisiana Purchase of 1803
Monroe Doctrine 1823
Foreign policy intended to limit European influence in the Western Hemisphere. • Warned Europe against any further colonization in Latin America. • Resulted from the close geographic relationship between the U.S. and Latin America.
Period of time when the British ignored the colonies because they only wanted to benefit from the economic prosperity of the colonies. Led to the development of independent colonial trade practices.
Division of powers between the national and state government.
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Main purpose is to protect civil liberties and protect the people from government abuse.
French and Indian War
Caused by disputed land claims in the Ohio River valley between the French and the British (the French and Indians were on the same side). War led to the end of the period of Salutary Neglect, because of the British need to tax the American colonists in order to pay for the war. This increase in taxes became one of the major causes of the Revolutionary War (war for American independence from Great Britain).