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Terms in this set (25)
Subregions of vineyard areas for Port
Baixo Corgo - lightest wines
Cima Corgo - most top vineyards
Duoro Superior - soarsely planted but top quality
Climate in Duoro Valley
Warm continental. shielded from rain-bearing Atlantic winds by the Serra do Marão. Baixo Corgo is coolest and wettest and they get progressively warmer and drier the further East. Spring frosts and spring and autumn rain can be an issue, growing season can be too dry.
Soil in Duoro
Schist bedrock that fractures vertically allowing roots to access deep water reserves from winter.
Narrow terraces supported by stone walls traditionally used to plant grapes. No mechanization possible and walls expensive to maintain but still widely used.
Wider terraces to allow tractors and no retaining walls. Prone to erosion.
Vinho ao alto
Angle of slope is low. Unterraced system where vines planted up and down slope and can be accessed by roads from which machinery is operated by winches. Prone to erosion and not possible on steepest slopes.
Grapes in port
Complex blends of thick skinned H tannin varieties. Preferred for premium production:
Typical fermentation for port
24-36 hours fermentation time and stopped by fortification once alcohol is 5-9%abv.
Methods to get more extraction from port
piston plungers and robotic lagares
Shallow rectangular stainless steel tank traditional size of lagare but has self-propelled gantry with robotic "feet". Once the treading is finished, the machines also carry out punch downs. Widely used for premium production.
Shallow granite troughs used for foot treading
Early automated method but still used. Crushed grapes into vats and CO2 pressure pushes juice up through pipes into holding tank. At a certain pressure level, valve automatically released and wine floods back down over cap. Similar effect to pumping over but happens much more regularly - every 15 to 20 min.
Round shallow open topped stainless steel vats- cap pushed down with robotic pistons.
Spirit used for fortification of port. Can be no stronger than 77%abv. Means a lot must be used. Average port is 20% spirit as opposed to fino Sherry - 3.5%
Villa Nova de Gaia
Coastal town with milder damper climate suited to maturation of port. Most are aged here.
Maturation of port
Traditionally done in Villa Nova de Gaia for better climate.however, Tawny aged in Duoro for warmer conditions mean faster ageing and lose color quicker. Air conditioned warehouses mean more being aged in vineyard area.
Traditionally only old oak - no oak characters desired. Two styles resultant of ageing vessel:
Ruby and tawny.
Predominant fruit character. Minimize effect of oxygen. Short period of time in large old oak or stainless.
Ruby, Reserve ruby, Late Bottled Vintage (LBV) and Vintage aged this way.
Ruby, Resecr ruby and some LBV fined and filtered before bottling and don't benefit from further ageing. The
Maturation vessel for Tawny port.
Made same as ruby, difference is maturation. Long oxidative. Garnet to tawny to brown. Raisin, walnut, coffee, chocolate, caramel. Does not benefit from further bottle ageing.
Reserve tawny ageing min
Wood aged for min. 6 years
Vintage wines aged between 4-6 years before bottling. More approachable on release than vintage ports. Usually fined and filtered and don't benefit from further ageing. Some unfiltered and will benefit from ageing and also throw a deposit so benefit from decanting.
Tawny with age indication
Long maturation in pipes. Can be 10, 20, 30, or 40 yrs old. Must be consistent with wines of that age. Must state Year of bottling. Lose freshness after bottling. These are best if tawny ports and can be exceptional.
Must register interest in making a vintage in second year after harvest. Wine must be bottled no later than third year. Large oak or stainless ageing and bottled unfined and unfiltered. Most concentrated and tannic upon release. Only produces average of 3 x a decade.
Single Quinta vintage
Product of single estate or quint. Quinta on label. Less prestigious than vintage port but still high quality. Common to age once bottled and release ready to drink.
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