96 terms

Final Exam 2nd Semester

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Divine Right
The belief that God created the monarch and the monarchy was designed to act as the representatives of God
Czar
Russian term for "Caesar"
Inflation
The decline in the value of money
Published in 1605 this book is considered the "Birth of the Modern European Novel
Don Quixote-
Scientific Revolution
A new way of thinking that replaced old assumptions with new theories
Scientific Method
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Heliocentric Theory
Theory Theory that the Earth, stars and the other planets revolve around the sun
Enlightenment
An intellectual movement that stressed reason, thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
What were the main ideas published in Galileo's book the Starry Messenger
Wrote that Jupiter had four moons
The Sun had dark spots
The moon had a rough uneven surface
Disproved that the moon and stars were made of a perfect substance
Who did Voltaire target with his satirical writings?
Targeted the government, clergy, and aristocracy
Which scientific mind created the Theory of Gravity?
Isaac Newton
What opportunity did Marry Wollstonecraft feel women needed to be as virtuous and useful as men?
She wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women
What style of music is Ludwig von Beethoven best known for?
Classical Music-Lighter elegant style of music
Which book containing a series of essays helped spread ideas throughout Europe during the Enlightenment?
Diderot's Encyclopedia-
What did Montesquieu devote his life to studying?
Devoted himself to the study of political liberty
What happened to Napoleon after his defeat in the Battle of Waterloo?
Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena where he died 6 years later
How much did the U.S. purchase the Louisiana Territory for?
$15 million
Which device was invented in the 1790's made it easy to behead criminals?
Guillotine-
What was significant about the Congress of Vienna?
The Congress of Vienna marked the 1st time an entire continent came together to decide political affairs
What did Napoleon imply to the French people by crowning himself emperor?
This symbolized his power over the church
Nationalism
A belief that a person's greatest loyalty should be to their nation and those of a common culture/history not just to a king
Kaiser
Kaiser German term meaning "emperor"
Nation State
A nation with its own independent government
What did conservatives tend to argue for
Argued for the protection of the traditional monarchies
What was the first Latin territory to win it's independence from European rule
Saint Dominique (Haiti
Which Latin American nation achieved their independence without fighting
Brazil
Which nation was the 1st group to win self-rule from the Ottomans?
Greece
Stock
Certain rights of ownership sold to help entrepreneurs open or expands their business
What professions tended to make up England's upper-middle class professions tended to make up England's upper-middle class
Gov. employees, doctors, lawyers, and those who managed mines, and shops
Racism
The belief that one race is superior to another
Social Darwinism
The belief that the races "fittest for survival" would enjoy wealth and success b/c they were superior to others
Imperialism
The seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country
Sepoy
Indian military soldiers
In order to finish the Suez Canal Egypt had to barrow $450 million dollars from?
European Bankers
Which nation was considered by Britain the "jewel in their crown
India
What caused the Sepoy mutiny to begin?
New rifles were greased with pork and beef fat Pork against Islamic beliefs Hindus viewed Cows as sacred creatures
What were some of the negative effects of Britain's colonization of India
British restricted Indian-owned industries This leads to a loss of self-sufficiency for many villages The switch to cash crops led to famines in the late 1800's Britain adopted a hands-off policy towards religion and social customs Missionaries and racist officials threatened traditional Indian life
By 1880 Europeans only held 10% of the territory on this continent
Africa
When did Britain take direct control of India?
1858
Who was the leading power in India from 1757 to 1858?
Britain
Triple Entente
Britain's alliance with France and Russia established in 1907
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy whose goal was to isolate France
Fourteen Points
A series of proposals drawn up by Woodrow Wilson in order to outline a long lasting peace with Europe
Total War
Policy where all available resources nation possesses are dedicated to war
Five-Years Plan
Stalin's incremental plans for the development of the Soviet Union's Economy
Command Economy
A system where the government makes all of the economic decisions
Bolsheviks
A radical group of Marxists willing to give up everything for change
Proletariat
Revolutionary term meaning that the "workers would rule the country
1What did Marx feel was the perfect form of Socialism?
Communism
Where did Russia rank in the world in terms of steel production by 1900
4th
How many of his own people do historians estimate Stalin killed during the Great Purge?
8 to 13 Million People
Describe a Totalitarian government?
Describes a government that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life
Which two armies faced off in the Russian Civil War?
Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army
What did Joseph Stalin's last name translate to?
"Man of Steel"
Who developed the geocentric theory?
Aristotle The Greek astronomer Ptolemy expanded the theory in the second century
What areas of academia made new discoveries during the enlightenment?
Astronomy , Science, Philosophy , Arts
What three rights did John Locke believe we are born with
Life, Liberty and Property
Napoleonic Code
Code A uniform set of laws that ended many injustices in France
Coup d' etat
A French term meaning a "blow to the state"
Scorched-earth Policy
During their retreat Russian soldiers burned the grain fields and slaughtered the cattle along the way to Moscow in order prevent the French from gaining new resources
When did Brazil declare their independence from Portugal?
Sept. 1822
What did the influence of nationalism lead to as it spread across Europe
Became a powerful weapon against Napoleon
What was Napoleons' greatest downfall
Napoleon's desire for power became his greatest downfall Napoleon escaped from Elba on March 1st, 1815
Crowds joyfully greeted him and helped him re-capture the French throne
Waterloo-
June 18th, 1815-British and Prussian forces defended their ground and defeated Napoleon's forces
Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena where he died 6 years later
What was the Continental System designed to do?
Make continental Europe self-sufficient
Destroy Britain's commercial and industrial economy
Why was the Hundred Days significant
Napoleon's last bid for power.
Capitalism
An economic system where the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested to make a personal profit
Socialism
An economic system where all of the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
Industrialization
The process of developing the machine production of goods through the use of natural resources.
Entrepreneur
Someone who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business
What did Adam Smith say people would do according to the Law of Self Interest?
People work for their own good
Which country was forced to develop their own industry as a result of the "British Blockade" during War of 1812
United States
What did Karl Marx feel the industrial revolution would lead to?
Enriched the wealthy and improvised the poor.
He felt the workers would overthrow the owners
Marx felt communism was the "complete form of socialism
Which nation's Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry?
United States
What did Jethro Tull invent in 1701 to help farmers plant unified crops
Seed Drill
What are the three factors of production?
Land, labor and capital (a.k.a wealth)
What responsibilities do stock holders hold in a corporation
Share Profits
What are they not responsible for?
Debts
When did the U.S. abolish slavery?
1865
Young women often went to work in factories to gain a sense of independence and find
Independence
What were Adam Smith's Three Natural Laws?
The Law of Self-Interest The Law of Competition
The Law of Supply and Demand
The Treaty of Versailles
Versailles An agreement designed to bring peace among the nations and punish Germany after WWI
The Western Front
This deadlocked region of Northern France was fought over during WWI
Propaganda
One-sided information designed to keep up moral and support for the war
What is the area between two trenches called?
No Mans Land
Which nation faced the harshest punishment as a result of the War Guilt Clause
Germany
How many soldiers died during WWI?
8.5 Million
Following WWI what major organization did the U.S. fail to join?
League of Nations
Which two nations did Germany declare war on with in a three day period in August 1914
Russia and France
What was the goal of the League of Nations
To keep peace among the nations
How much was the financial damage to Europe estimated to be?
33 Billion
What major event sparked the beginning of WWI?
June 28th, 1914 Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
Which four nations made up the "Big Four" following WWI?
United States, France, Great Britain and Italy
Which of the Central Powers was the last to surrender?
Germany
When did WWI officially end?
November 11 1918
Which nation was Germany trying to recruit through the Zimmerman note
Mexico
What was Russia's main advantage during WWI
Population