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24 terms

Pharmacology Chapter 22

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Anticonvulsants
Used to reduce the number or severity of seizures in epileptic patients
Epilepsy (Seizures)
A recurrent paroxysmal disorder of brain function characterized by sudden attacks of altered consciousness. Cause is idiopathic
Epilepsy Seizure Treatment
Based on: 1. Type 2. Severity 3. Cause
Seizure Disorders (3 types)
1. Generalized 2. Partial 3. Unclassified Tx: 1. Dilanton Tegretol
Generalized Seizures
1. Grand Mal (tonic-clonic) 2. Absence (Petit Mal) Tx: Dilanton
Grand Mal Seizure (tonic-clonic)
Loss of consciousness w/convulsing, lasting (2-5 minutes)
Absence Seizure (Petit Mal) 10 - 30 seconds
Patient is not aware of you (10 - 30 seconds) make odd or repetitive movements. This is the beginning of the seizure
Absence Epilepsy (Petit Mal) Phase & Tx
Muscles state to contract "violent shaking" eyes roll back Tx: 1. Klonopin 2. Dilantin
Dilantin
Medication makes patient sleepy, dizzy, double vision. Dose is adjusted based on patient response "see what works for patient"
Phycomotor Epilepsy (Partial Seizures)
Phycomotor Epilepsy or Temporal lobe seizures Partial seizures w/complex symptomology. Caused by a lesion in the temporal lob of the brain
Unilateral seizures
Affect only one side
Mixed Seizures
patterns combining more than one type
Seizure Tx
1. Dilantin, phenobarbital or valproic acid 2. Tegretol
Tegretol (Cautions)
Do not consume grapefruit juice while taking this drug it potentiates action & can increase risk of serious adverse effects
Seizures (Grand Mal) 2-5 min
1. Tonic-clonic Phase: person losses consciousness (freeze) 2. Tongue get caught - Muscles start to contract followed by violent shaking, eyes rolling back in head
Febrile convulsions (children)
Tx: phenobarbital alone
Anticonvulsant (Idiopathic)
Impaired motor activity or sensory impairment. Tx: 1. Tegretol XR (extended release tabs) 2. 2nd generation Neurontin
Tegretol
Is for phycomotor (Partial or mixed seizures)
Dilantan
For Grand Mal, Psycomotor or Focal Seizures; frequently combined w/phenobarbital
Neurontin
For Partial Seizures
Antiparkinsonian Drugs
Tx: Sinemet
Alzheimer's Disease (Dementia)
Tx - Aricept There is no cure. Tx is given to try to slow it down. A devastating progressive decline in cognitive function, having a gradual onset (60-90 y.o.) followed by increasingly severe impairment in social & occupational functioning
Cognex
First drug approved for Alzheimer's, but associated with hepatotoxicity
Parkinson's Disease
A chronic neurological disorder characterized by: 1. slowly spreading muscle tremors 2. regitidy & muscle weakness 3. a shuffling gait There is no cure and Tx is given to relieve symptoms & maintain mobility