SS.912.A.3.1 Analyze the economic challenges to American farmers and farmers' responses to these challenges in the mid to late 1800s.

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Agricultural surplus
Excessive amounts of agricultural production.
business monopolies
the Grangers response to economic challenges to American farmers read their Farmer's Declaration of Independence, which cited all of their grievances and in which they vowed to free themselves from the tyranny of non-competition corporations; The popularity of the Grangers was "less for its social and educational advantages than for the opportunity it presented for farmers to unite against the... [non-competition]... practices of railroads and elevators and to institute for themselves cooperative methods of buying and selling."
Cross of Gold Speech
William Jennings Bryan orated, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." The audience listened and cheered as Bryan spoke for "the plain people of this country," for "our farms" and declared "we beg no longer". Lead to Bryan's nomination for U.S. President under the Populist Party platform.
Farmers Alliance
Local organizations linked together and soon connected to farmers in the South and the West and for a brief period farmers of all races and ethnicities banded together for their common cause
Grange (pg. 177)
Attracted 1 million members, led by Oliver H. Kelley, included providing education on new farming techniques and calling for the regulation of railroad and grain elevator rates.
Granger laws (pg. 178)
The railroad companies challenged these laws aimed at maximum shipping rates for freight and for grain storage... The supreme court upheld some and overturned others.
Homestead Act (1862)
the government offered farm plots of 160 acres to anyone willing to live on the land for 5 years, dig a well, and build a road. Encouraged settlement and farming in the West
creation of agricultural colleges
Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 giving land grants to states for the purpose of establishing agricultural colleges to help teach more scientific farming methods and new scientific developments (plow that tacked sod-covered land, grain drill-opened furrows and planted see, windmill-tapped underground water, and dry-farming techniques). Ex. Michigan State.
Morrill Land Grant Act
1862, to spur the development of better ways to farm, which made land grants to states for the purpose of establishing agricultural colleges.
gold standard
Major political parties committed to this monetary policy which meant that gold remained the basis of the nation's currency and paper money was backed by gold reserves.
Bimetallism
advocacy of "free silver" or the coinage of silver as well as gold...
creation of the Populist Party
Spread of the Farmers' Alliance culminated with formation of the "People's Party" in 1892, grass roots political party where they ran entire slates of candidates for local, state, and national positions; spread rapidly putting pressure on the 2 major political parties to think about--dangers of corruption, inadequate monetary supply and unresponsive government; solutions included coinage of silver or "free silver" and demanded government ownership of railroads.
Exodusters
Group of African Americans who took their name after the story of Moses leading the Jews out of bondage into a new "Promised Land" except their "promised land" was Kansas and Oklahoma where they planted crops and founded several enduring all-black towns, (Benjamin Singleton)
Munn vs. Illinois
Granger Case, the Court ruled against a Chicago grain-storage facility that challenged the constitutionality of an 18711 Illinois law setting maximum rates for shipping freight; this decision upheld the right of states to regulate private industries in some circumstances.
Wabash v. Illinois (1886)
The Court ruled against state regulation, and overturned an Illinois law by declaring that individual states did not have the power to regulate interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
the Grangers helped to prompt the federal government to establish this agency for Interstate transportation