APHG Ch 10 Key Issue 4
Vocab flashcards for Rubenstein textbook, Chapter 10 Agriculture, Key Issue 4
Terms in this set (33)
a problem of commercial farming. Because of efficicient agricultural practices, too much food is sometimes produced, leading to reduced income because the food has increased, but the demand has not (partly due to low population growth in MDCs)
an example of overproduction.
Is heavily involved in the food industry, props up farmers with financial subsidies, created policies to stop overproduction, spent $25 billion on subsidies in 2005
US gov't encourages farmers to avoid planting crops that are in surplus, and to plant fallow crops instead (clover) to feed animals and combat soil erosion
US gov't sets a "target price" for crops. Farmers sell their crops for the market price. The gov't pays for the difference between the target and market price to keep incomes the same as they were in the past. The money paid is called a subsidy.
buy up food
US gov't buys surplus food to sell or donate to other countries. Poor Americans get food stamps to increase their purchase of additional.
MDCs are trying to produce less food, while LDCs are struggling to produce enough food
a commercial agriculture practice that preserves environmental quality (sensitive land management, limited use of chemicals, better integration of crop and livestock)
an example of sustainable agriculture. US Department of Agriculture sets standards for organic food. .23% of worldwide farmland is organic, with Australia the leader
part of sustainable ag, protects the soil by planting crops of ridgetops. The space for driving tractors is separate from the planting areas. Popular in Iowa with soybean growth
created by Monsanto Corporation, they don't die whenever sprayed with pesticides and herbicides. Combining some chemicals and some by-hand weed control is better than one or the other.
integrated crop and livestock
animals eat crops produced on the farm and are not confined in pens
created by economist Ester Boserup, indentified 5 stages in the intensification of farming in LDCs
1. Forest fallow
fields are used for 2 years and left fallow for 20 years, long enough for the forest to grow back
2. Bush fallow
fields are used for up to 8 years and laft fallow for 10, long enough for small trees and bushes to grow back
3. Short fallow
fields are used for about 2 years, and left fallow for 2 years, enough for wild grasses to grow back
4. Annual cropping
fields are used every year and left fallow for a few months, by planting legumes and roots
fields are used several times a year and never left fallow
LDC money problems
increasing food production requires new machinery and technology, which costs money. LDCs must sell an export crop to get money
the export crop of choice for most LDCs, cultivation of opium poppy or coca leaf(cocaine) supports 4 million people in LDCs. Marijuana is made from the Cannabis sativa plant
increase food supply by increasing land
Historically, food production has increased because of more land, but now there is a lack of land. Urbanization, wetlands, and drylands limit agricultural areas
crop overuse causes soil erosion and nutrient depletion, leading to a good land becoming dry and desert-like. Technically, this is semiarid land degradation.
increase food supply by higher productivity
in the 1960s, population grew faster than food. "Miracle seeds" have helped food keep up with population. Machinery and fertilizers are needsd to make the best use of miracle seeds, but nitrogen fertilizers, mainly produced by China, are expensive because they are made with fossil fuels.
in the 1970s and 80s. the rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural practices and technologies
Dr. Norman Borlaug's miracle wheat seed is shorter/stiffer than traditional wheat, responds better to fertilizers, matures faster, and is less sensitive to variation in daylight. Borlaug won the Nobel Peace Prize
Created by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines, a combo of Indonesian rice and Taiwan dwarf rice
increase food supply with new sources
find new sources for food other than agriculture as we know it
Only 2/3 of all fish caught is consumed directly, while the rest is fed to animals. Fish consumption increased in the 60s, but one quarter of all fish have been overfished and one-half fully exploited. Many countries have claimed 200 nautical miles in their bordering seas to protect fishing rights
Peru is very sensitive to the protection of its anchovies, which declined 75% between 1970 and 1973. The Peruvian fish industry is now nationalized
develop high-protein cereals
increasing the protein in cereal grains through genetic experiments would help give more nutrition in less food, but would be hard in LDCs because of subsistence farming
improve the taste of foods
make "disliked" foods look like "good" foods. Example--Asian seed drinks that look like sodas, soybean that is in burgers, there is a surplus of krill in the sea but no one eats it because it tastes bad
increase food supply by increasing exports
export more food from countries with a surplus, such as the US (biggest grain exporter). South Asia/South America have become exporters. Thailand is the biggest exporter of rice. Japan and then China are the biggest grain importers.
Grain growth has tripled in sub-Saharan Africa, but population has increased sixfold. 40 million Africans face famine, and 1/3 are underhourished. Most affected are in the horn of African (Somalia/Ethiopia) and the Sahel (just south of the Sahara, Mali/Niger/Chad). Overuse of the land by crops and animals led to desertification and erosion. Poor gov't policies and severe droughts also contributed.