Social Studies Final Exam


Terms in this set (...)

Great Migration Theory- Native Americans
Men and women from Asia crossed a land bridge between Siberia and Africa.

Created many societies based on regional resources:
1. sedentary (not moving)- villages/towns/farms
2. semi-sedentary- towns/villages, but moved in search of food as needed
3. non-sedentary- temporary camps moved easily
Colombian Exchange- Effects
One (negative) result of the exchange was the transfer of germs from Europe to America- Native Americans did not have immunity to European diseases

Positive- livestock and crops from Europe thrived in the colonies, American crops became a large part of European diet: Potatoes and Corn
Dutch Settlement- Hudson Valley
New Netherland was the colony built along the Hudson River
Person who brought 50 settlers to New Netherland in return for a large land grant.
Religious Reason for Colonization
Example of Religious Colonies
1. Plymouth- Separatists fled England
2. Massachusetts Bay Colony, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine- Puritans fled England in "Great Migration"
3. Maryland-Catholics
4. Pennsylvania- Quakers
Albany Plan of Union
First formal proposal to unite colonies.
Each colony would send a representative to a Grand Council, which would collect taxes, raise armies, and make treaties.
Rejected because colonies did not want to give up control of own affairs.
French and Indian War-
Causes: Both the French and English wanted to control the waterways for trade and needed control of the Ohio River Valley to get access to the Mississippi River Valley.
Effect of British Debt: They wanted to tax the colonies to pay.
British Colonial Policies
Escalated the division between the Colonies and England, because the colonists didn't like being taxed without representation.
British Colonial Policies
Stamp Act
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
British Colonial Policies
Tea Act
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
British Colonial Policies
Sugar Act p156
English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
British Colonial Policies
Intolerable Acts
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Battles of Revolutionary War
Turning point, because it prevented the British from dividing the states and isolating New England. It also showed other European countries that we could win, so we gained supporters.
Battles of Revolutionary War
Final (major) battle of the war in which French and American forces led by Washington defeated British forces led by Cornwallis. After this battle, they began to negotiate a peace treaty.
A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country. Goal is for home country to get rich. Economic cause of Revolution, because Britain wanted to make money from Colonies.
Articles of Confederations
Government run by legislative body called Confederation Congress. Most powers were left to the states. Moved to Constitution, because Congress was too weak to deal with most national issues. As a result, there were many problems with European nations and rebellions in US.
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson. Main idea: people have a right to govern themselves and if a government takes away people's rights, they can start a new one.
Constitutional Convention
Great Compromise
3/5 Compromise
Constitutional Convention- called to create a government strong enough to protect people's rights, but not too strong.
Great compromise- two house legislature: one house based on population, one house equal representative. Two plans before (Virginia and New Jersey) only had representatives one way or the other.
3/5 Compromise- Slaves would only be counted as 3/5 of a person for legislature and taxes- North didn't want them counted, but South did
Executive Branch- DUTIES
President: enforces the law
Legislative Branch
House of Representative
Creates the Laws
House- representation based on population
Senate- Each state gets 2 senators
Judicial Branch- DUTIES
Supreme Court- Interprets laws
Separation of Powers
Basic government roles are divided into 3 branches (executive-president, legislative-congress, judicial-courts)

Ex. The Judicial branch decides if laws are unconstitutional.
System of government in which power is divided between a central government and smaller political units (states)
Delegated: National
Reserved: State
Concurrent: Both

Ex. Each state makes its own laws about public education.
Checks and Balances
Each branch can exercise controls or "checks" over the other branches.

The President can approve or veto (cancel) laws created by Congress.
The Supreme Court can rule a law unconstitutional.
The senate confirms the presidents nominations.
Marbury v. Madison
Established judicial review- first time the court exercised judicial review by overruling a law passed by congress.
Washington's precedents
Assembled a cabinet to advise him in certain areas. Name "Mr. President"
Political Parties-
Leaders- Hamilton, Adams
Beliefs- strong national government, loose interpretation of constitution, national bank, trade

Leaders: Jefferson, Madison
Beliefs- limited government, strict interpretation, against national bank, agricultural economy
Hamilton's Economic Plan-
Wanted to improve nation's finances to strengthen the government by:
1) Paying off war debts- federal pay off state debt
2) Raising government revenues- by having tariffs (taxes on imports)
3) Creating a national bank
Jefferson and Hamilton Arguments about national bank-
Hamilton- Wanted national bank and favored a "loose" interpretation of constitution- creating a bank wasn't written in the Constitution, but the "elastic clause" allows to do things necessary and proper

Jefferson- did not want national bank- "strict" interpretation- if the constitution doesn't say it, we can't do it
Historical Events Adams Presidency
2nd President 1797-1801

XYZ Affair- 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from US diplomats
Alien and Sedition Acts- four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions- 1798 gave states the right to declare acts of Congress null and void
Pushed for a strong government
Historical Events Jefferson's presidency
3rd president 1801

Judiciary Act 1801- let the president fill the federal judge ships with Federalists
judicial review- principle that states that the Supreme court has the final say in interpreting the constitution
Pushed for a weaker goverment
Erie canal
Linked Albany to Lake Erie at Buffalo, allowed goods to travel from NYC to west through the Great Lakes, Canal fees make a large profit for the state and caused a boom in trade, NYC became a center for trade/largest port in US, Helped in settling the west, inspired a boom in canal building
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the USA had the right to all the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Mexican Cession
Ended the War with Mexico over Texas- Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the US- Texas border set at Rio Grande- US paid $15
War of 1812
War between the United States and Great Britain
America entered for freedom of the seas and against (British) Indian issues
Industrial Revolution-
Economic changes of the late 1700s when large scale manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work
Territorial Expansions of the US 1803-1849- Be able to identify Louisiana Purchase, Florida, Texas, Oregon Territory, Mexican Cession
Study Map!!!
Declaration of Sentiments
Drafted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton- stated that women were equal and demanded the right to vote.
War with Mexico-
Between US and Mexico- over disputed territory
Effect- US gains territory in Mexican Cession, including Texas (almost 1/2 of present day mexico)
Early industrialization of the US
North- factory machines started replacing hand tools and large-scale manufacturing produced huge quantities of goods. Produced textiles, including cotton (From South)
South- able to provide more cotton due to improvements in technology and using slaves for labor
Whitney- interchangable parts- parts for each item are exactly the same- quicker to make and fix goods
Slater- first spinning mill in Rhode Island- made items quicker
Samuel Morse- telegraph- improved communication
Cyrus McCormick- mechanical reaper- easier to cut grain- increased amount of food grown/sold
Missouri Compromise
To keep slave and free states equal:
1. Missouri would enter as a slave state (south wanted)
2. Maine, part of Massachusetts, would be a free state (north wanted)
3. Slavery would not be allowed north of the 36 30 parallel line in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase (south wanted)
Compromise of 1850
Series of laws intended to settle the major disagreements between free and slave states
*California would be free and Washington DC would get rid of slavery (north wanted)
*Congress would not pass laws regarding slavery for the rest of the territories won from Mexico
*Fugitive slave act (south wanted)
Frederick Douglas- Journalist who spoke against slavery and for the rights of women

William Lloyd Garrison- Radical Abolitionist
Published "The Liberator"- and even burned a copy of the Constitution as protest

Harriet Beecher Stowe- Abolitionist
Wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"- a book about the life of a slave
Sold over 300,000 copies first year published
Dred Scott
Greatest setback to abolition movement.
Supreme Court Case/Decision that said African Americans were not citizens, so could not sue the court.
They were considered property, instead.
They could be moved anywhere in the country.
All compromises over slavery were nullified (made void) due to this decision.
Bleeding Kansas
Bloody battles/civil war in Kansas over the issue of allowing slavery in Kansas

A result of the Kansas-Nebraska act, which said Kansas could vote whether to be slave or free states.

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