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Chemistry Chapter 15 and 16
Terms in this set (33)
Describe the process of solvation.
the process in which the negative and positive ions of an ionic bond are surrounded by the solvent molecules, allowing "like" things to dissolve other "like" things. For example, NaCl is able to be dissolved by H2O because of the polar similarities and a difference in charges.
What is a surfactant?
any substance that interferes with hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension
How does the structure of ice differ from the structure of water?
Ice is a regular open framework of hydrogen-bonded water molecules arranged like a honeycomb. This structure collapses in liquid water
Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in ice.
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold the molecules in a regular, open structure
Distinguish between a solution in general and aqueous solution.
An aqueous solution is a solution that has water as the solvent
Identify the solute and solvent in a solution of sugar in water.
Why is water an excellent solvent for most ionic and polar covalent but not for nonpolar covalent compounds?
The polar water molecules electrostatically attract ions and polar covalent molecules. Polar compounds will dissolved but nonpolar compounds are unaffected because they have no charges
Explain why gasoline does not dissolve in water.
Water is polar and gasoline is nonpolar
What particles must be present in a solution if it is to conduct electricity
Why does molten sodium chloride conduct electricity?
its ions are free to move toward an electrode
What is a weak electrolyte and a strong electrolyte.
Most substances are strong electrolytes which are substances that exist almost completely as ions in solutions; nearly all soluble ionic compounds are strong electrolytes. Weak electrolytes are compounds that only partially ionize in solution.
water of hydration
molecules that are an integral part of a crystal structure
How can you distinguish between a suspension and a solution?
A suspension has large particles that settle to the bottom. The particles in a solution stay suspended
Arrange colloids, suspensions, and solutions in order of increasing sizes.
Why don't solutions demonstrate the Tyndall effect?
Because the molecules or ions are too small to have reflective surfaces
What are two circumstances that help keep colloidal particles in suspension?
Brownian motion and repulsion between like-charged ions absorbed on the surfaces of colloidal particles
How can a colloid be destroyed?
by adding ions with a charge opposite that of the colloidal particles
a solution in which water is the solvent
The chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed
a mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out
A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
(chemistry) a colloid in which both phases are liquids
any compound that contains water of crystallization
A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current
Substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by solvent molecules
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension
any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity well; this is due to the presence of all or almost all of the dissolved compound in the form of ions
a mixture in which fine particles are suspended in a fluid where they are supported by buoyancy
the tightness across the surface of water that is caused by the polar molecules pulling on one another
the phenomenon in which light is scattered by very small particles in its path
any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly; this is due to the presence of a small amount of the dissolved compound in the form of ions
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