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Pathophysiology Ch 10: Biology of Cancer
Terms in this set (79)
Disease in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues Derived from greek work for crab karkinoma.
originally referred to as any swelling that is caused by inflammation. also referred to as neoplasm.
New growth (tumor)
Benign tumor characteristics
Low mitotic index
Do not metastasize
smooth muscle of the uterus
membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Malignant tumor characteristics
High mitotic index
Can spread distantly
ductal or glandular tissue
Pre-invasive epithelia malignant tumors of glandular origin that have not broken through the basement membrane
Carcinoma in situ (CIS)
What does cancer refer to?
A malignant tumor
What is required before cancer can develop?
Normal genes that direct protein synthesis and cellular growth
a gene that in certain circumstances can transform a cell into a tumor cell. Mutant genes
Point mutation in RAS gene converts from regulated to unregulated
Genes that encode proteins that in their normal state negatively regulate proliferation also referred to as anti oncogenes.
What allows for unregulated cellular growth?
Mutation of tumor-suppressor genes
is a GTPase that converts GTP to GDP, thus activating signaling pathways that transcription of the cell cycle regulators and enhance into cellular proliferation.
a prototypical tumor suppresser gene, when mutated, persistent cell growth occurs.
Encode for proteins that are involved in repairing damaged DNA
Increased tendency for genomic mutations during life cycle of the cell. Risk for cancer increases.
Chromosome instability results in an increase in...
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2
Breast cancer 1 and 2
what percentage of women develop breast cancer
What percent of women with BRCA1 mutation develop cancer by 70
What percent of women with BRCA2 mutation develop cancer by 70
Are protective caps on each chromosome and are held in place by telomerase
Cancer cells can activate telomerase causing...
unlimited division and proliferation
Growth of new vessels( an important component of wound healing)
Use of glycolysis under normal oxygen conditions allowing for products of glycolysis to be used for rapid cell growth. activated by oncogenes and mutant tumor suppressors.
Important factor in the development of cancer
Chronic inflammation (cytokine release from inflammatory cells)
Programmed cell death
defects in what provide resistance to apoptotic cell death?
intrinsic and extrinsic pathways
A bacterium that infects more than half of the worlds population, causes chronic inflammation associated with:
Peptic ulcer disease
mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.
Large numbers in some tumors. Key cells that promote tumor survival.
What protects against cancer?
Normal immune system.
What fosters cancer
Implicated viruses causing cancer
Hep B and C
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus
Human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus
When does metastasis occur during cancer progression?
Spread of cancer from a primary site of origin to a distant site. Direct invasion of contiguous organs, known as local spread.
How do metastases spread?
Through vascular and lymphatic pathways
Model for transition to metastatic cancer cells. Epithelial characteristics lost.
(EMT) Epithelial- mesenchymal transition
Breast cancer spreads to...
Lymphomas spread to...
What is pain influenced by in early stages of cancer?
Most frequently reported symptom of cancer
A cellular quiescence, a stable, non proliferative state that is reversible.
2/3 of breast cancer deaths occur 5 years of being disease free
Dormancy of metastases
Mechanisms of anemia
Malignancy in blood-forming organs
Weakness and wasting of the body. Most severe form of malnutrition. includes: anorexia , early satiety, weight loss. anemia, and altered protein, lipid, and carb metabolism.
What causes leukopenia and thrombocytopenia?
Direct tumor invasion to the bone marrow
A decrease of hemoglobin in the blood.
What is toxic to the bone marrow?
Hair and skin manifestations from cancer
Alopecia from chemotherapy
GI manifestations from cancer
Stage 1 Cancer
Stage 2 Cancer
Stage 3 Cancer
Spread to regional structures
Stage 4 Cancer
T: Tumor spread
N: Node involvement
M: Presence of distant metastasis
A patient has been diagnosed with prostate cancer that has metastasized to the bone. Stage of cancer?
What are tumor markers used for?
Screen for cancer risk
Diagnose types of tumors
What are tumors classified based on?
immmunohistochemical analysis of protein expression
substances produced by cancer cells that are found on or in tumor cells, in the blood, CSF or urine.
Eradicate cancer without excessive toxicity
Avoid damage to normal structures
Chemotherapy for shrinkage or disappearance of tumors
Surgery is used to treat cancer by:
Preventing it (colon polyps)
Biopsy for diagnosing and staging
Lymph node sampling
Chemotherapy to eliminate micrometastasis after surgery
Chemotherapy given before localized treatment to shrink tumor
What is used in combination with chemotherapy?
Absence of differentiation
Serum marker to evaluate a tumor of the adrenal gland
Process whereby tumor cells generate their own blood supply
Increased tendency for genome alterations and mutability during cell life cycles
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