Terms in this set (31)
Consider the process that a cell uses to replicate its double-stranded DNA to make copies for daughter cells. Which statement describes the DNA in daughter cells?
The double helices in each daughter cell consist of one parental strand and one newly made strand.
Which term describes DNA replication?
What kinds of bonds link the two strands of a double helix to each other?
DNA synthesis begins at:
The replication origins
Replication origins typically consist of a small stretch of DNA that is relatively easy to open. Which statement is true?
Replication origins are rich in A and T nucleotides
The replication forks at an origin of replication move:
In opposite directions
DNA synthesis proceeds:
In 5' to the 3' direction
Nucleotides are linked by:
What provides the energy for DNA polymerization?
The hydrolysis of incoming nucleoside triphosphates (releasing PPi)
At a replication fork, ,both strands of DNA are replicated in the 5' to 3' direction (T/F)
At a replication fork, the leading strand is synthesized:
At a replication fork, the lagging strand is synthesized:
How often does DNA polymerase make an error during DNA replication?
One error in every 10,000,000 nucleotide pairs
When does DNA polymerase perform its proofreading function on mispaired nucleotides?
Before adding the next nucleotide in the chain
The proofreading activity of DNA polymerase occurs in which direction?
3' to 5'
During DNA replication, DNA polymerase initiates a completely new DNA strand from scratch (T/F)
Which of the following describes a primer used in DNA replication?
A short segment (about 10 nucleotides) of RNA
DNA replication requires two primers: one primer for the lagging strand and one primer for the leading strand
What powers the action of helicase at the replication fork, where it opens up the double helix?
What is the function of single-strand binding proteins in DNA replication?
They bind to single-stranded DNA and prevent the single-strands from re-forming base pairs
What is the function of the sliding clamp in DNA replication?
It keeps DNA polymerase firmly attached to the template while it synthesizes a new strand of DNA
The enzyme that replicates the ends of chromosomes is called:
What does depurination refer to?
The loss of A or G bases from DNA
How do ultraviolet radiation in sunlight typically damage DNA?
It promotes covalent linkage between two adjacent pyrimidine bases
What type of enzyme removes damaged DNA from the rest of the DNA molecule?
What type of enzyme fills in the gap after damaged DNA has been removed?
What type of enzyme seals the newly added (Repaired DNA) to the rest of the DNA molecule?
Copying errors not caught by the replication machinery can be corrected by:
The DNA mismatch repair system
DNA mismatch repair can correct what percentage of replication errors?
Most cancers arise from cells that have accumulated multiple mutations (T/F)
When a cell repairs a double-strand DNA break by the process of nonhomologous end-joining:
The original DNA sequence at the repair site has been altered by a short deletion
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