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100 terms

quizzes 2

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which of the following is responsible for problem-solving skills
central nervous system
the CNS includes the
spinal cord
the PNS includes the
cranial nerves
The sensory (afferent) division of the peripheral nervous system
conveys action potential to CNS
which of the following is mismatched
somatic nervous system - sensory division of PNS
dendrites
are the input part of a neuron
Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters and are present in the
presynaptic terminals or terminal buttons
microglia
are phagocytic cells in the CNS
which is true
In saltatory conduction, electrical charges flow from node to node.
white matter is composed of
bundles of myelinated axons
For the resting membrane potential, increasing the sodium ion concentration in the ECF results in
little change in the membrane potential
in hyperpolarization
K+ ions tend to diffuse out of the cell.
Depolarization of the nerve cell membrane occurs when
there is a rapid influx (inflow) of
sodium ions
Which of the following events is NOT a characteristic of
an action potential?
As sodium ions enter, the inside of the plasma membrane becomes more negative.
A stimulus either causes an action potential or it doesn't.
This is called
all-or-none response
The opening of more and more Na+ ion channels during
depolarization
is an example of a positive feedback system
During the absolute refractory period, the cell
is insensitive to further stimulation
Chemical synapses are characterized by
the release of neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal
Local hyperpolarization in a synapse is called a(an)
inhibitory postsynaptic potential
Arrange the events of synaptic transmission in correct
sequence: (1) sodium ions diffuse into the cell and cause
a local potential
(2) neurotransmitter binds with receptor on postsynaptic cell
(3) neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft
(4) membrane permeability to sodium ions on postsynaptic cell increases
(5) action potential causes release of neurotransmitter
5,3,2,4,1
In the CNS, clusters of gray matter containing cell bodies
are called
nuclei
Which of the following is correctly associated with the
medulla oblongata?
It contains nuclei for regulation of heart rate and blood vessel diameter.
The pyramids of the medulla contain
descending motor tracts
Which of the following terms does NOT belong with the
others?
thalamus
Which two portions of the brain are involved in controlling
respiration?
pons, medulla oblangata
The substantia nigra interconnects with the
basal nuclei
The sleep/wake cycle is influenced by the
reticular formation
The reticular formation
maintains alertness and attention
Which of the following is NOT a function of the cerebellum?
control heart rate
Most sensory input that ascends through the spinal cord
and brainstem projects to the
thalamus
An individual who has an eating disorder along with
intense thirst and wildly varying body temperatures may have a dysfunction of the
hypothalamus
The cerebral gyri increase
the surface area of the cortex
The central sulcus separates the
frontal and parietal lobes
Which of the following is not a lobe of the cerebrum?
sphenoidal
The primary somatic sensory or general sensory area is
located in
the postcentral gyrus
The most superficial meningeal layer is
the dura mater
Cerebrospinal fluid fills the
subarachnoid space
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
tentorium cerebelli - base of brain
Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by tissue in the walls and
roofs of the
ventricles of the brain
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the ____ and is
reabsorbed by the ____.
choroid plexus, arachnoid granulation
Cranial nerve function includes
somatic motor
The oculomotor nerve
adjusts pupil size to the level of lighting
The abducens nerves
are involved in eye movement
A kiss on the cheek would be perceived by impulses from the
trigeminal nerve
Facial expression is regulated by the
facial nerve
A deer hunter lost the hearing in his right ear after his gun exploded when he tried firing it. His hearing loss is the result of damage to what nerve?
vestibulocochlear
The glossopharyngeal nerve
is involved in the sense of taste
Which nerve has branches that extend to the thoracic and abdominal viscera?
vagus nerve
Upper motor neurons
control skeletal muscles
Which of the following statements concerning the descending pathways of the spinal cord is true?
Descending pathways consist of upper and lower motor neurons.
Which of the following is a descending pathway in the spinal cord?
corticospinal tract
Two tracts found within the extrapyramidal system are the
vestibulospinal and rubrospinal
Lesion of the basal nuclei could cause
a slight shaking of the hands or head
The cerebellum functions as a comparator. This means that the cerebellum compares
intended movements with actual movements
The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
only motor fibers
The sensory root of a spinal nerve is also referred to as
dorsal root
Nerve fibers in the phrenic nerves that innervated the diaphragm arise primarily from what plexuses?
cervical
The brachial plexus supplies nerves that function to contract which of the following?
muscles of the arm and forearm
Ventral rami of some spinal nerves join with each other to form a
plexus
If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, the regions innervated by that spinal nerve would experience complete loss of
movement
There are _____ enlargements of the spinal cord where nerves supplying the extremities enter and leave.
two
The spinal cord in contiguous superiorly with the
medulla oblongata
Which of the following is false?
a. The dorsal root of the spinal cord conveys sensory (afferent) nerve impulses to the spinal cord.
b. The posterior horn of the cord contains the cell bodies of motor neurons.
c. The ventral root is formed by the axons of neurons in the lateral and anterior horns.
d. The dorsal and ventral roots unite to form spinal nerves.
e. The ventral root of the spinal cord conveys motor (efferent) nerve impulses away from the spinal cord.
B The posterior horn of the cord contains the cell bodies of motor neurons.
Structurally, the simplest reflex is the
stretch reflex
Reflex arcs
are capable of receiving a stimulus and yielding a response
Which portion of a reflex arc is most likely to be located entirely within the central nervous system?
interneuron
The sensory root of a spinal nerve is also referred to as
dorsal root
During a spinal tap, cerebrospinal fluid is obtained from which of the following locations?
subarachnoid space
The sensory receptor of the stretch reflex is the
muscle spindle
Muscle spindles
are innervated by gamma motor neurons
Muscles and glands that are capable of producing a response when stimulated by motor neurons are called
effectors
The knee-jerk reflex involves which of the following?
sensory, motor and inhibitory interneurons
The reflex that prevents excessive tension in a muscle is the
golgi tendon reflex
A reflex that protects limbs by removing them from painful stimuli is the
withdrawal reflex
Initiating the withdrawal reflex in both legs at the same time would cause one to
fall
If a withdrawal reflex is initiated in one leg, the crossed extensor reflex causes
extension of the opposite leg
Nerve fibers in the phrenic nerves that innervated the diaphragm arise primarily from what plexuses?
cervical
The brachial plexus supplies nerves that function to contract which of the following?
muscles of the arm and forearm
Ventral rami of some spinal nerves join with each other to form a
plexus
The branch of a spinal nerve that innervates deep muscles on the dorsal thorax is the
dorsal ramus
In order for a molecule to be detected by the olfactory neurons, it must
be dissolved in fluid covering the olfactory epithelium
Which of the following statements is true?
Damaged olfactory neurons are replaced
Which of the following special senses is relayed directly to the cerebral cortex without going to the thalamus?
smell
Taste buds are not associated with _____ papillae.
filiform
Damage to which of the following cranial nerves may impair the sense of taste?
facial
The outermost tunic of the eyeball is the
sclera
The contractile structure that surrounds the pupil is the
iris
The area of greatest visual acuity is the
fovea centralis
The optic disc
contains no photoreceptor cells
Glaucoma can result from
inhibition of the circulation of aqueous humor
For distant vision,
the ciliary muscles are relaxed
Rhodopsin is found in the
rods
When rhodopsin is exposed to light,
retinal separates from opsin
To which colors are the three different kinds of cones sensitive?
red, blue, and green
The correct pathway for impulses leaving the retina is
photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and optic nerve.
Color vision
is a function of cone cells
Light and dark adaptation involves
pupillary reflexes, variations in rod and cone function and changes in the amount of available rhodopsin
Which of the following is NOT a feature of the retina?
optic chiasm
As an object moves closer to the eye,
eyes rotate medially
Increase in the distance from the eye to the near point of vision can be caused by
the lens becoming more rigid with age