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which of the following is responsible for problem-solving skills

central nervous system

the CNS includes the

spinal cord

the PNS includes the

cranial nerves

The sensory (afferent) division of the peripheral nervous system

conveys action potential to CNS

which of the following is mismatched

somatic nervous system - sensory division of PNS


are the input part of a neuron

Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters and are present in the

presynaptic terminals or terminal buttons


are phagocytic cells in the CNS

which is true

In saltatory conduction, electrical charges flow from node to node.

white matter is composed of

bundles of myelinated axons

For the resting membrane potential, increasing the sodium ion concentration in the ECF results in

little change in the membrane potential

in hyperpolarization

K+ ions tend to diffuse out of the cell.

Depolarization of the nerve cell membrane occurs when
there is a rapid influx (inflow) of

sodium ions

Which of the following events is NOT a characteristic of
an action potential?

As sodium ions enter, the inside of the plasma membrane becomes more negative.

A stimulus either causes an action potential or it doesn't.
This is called

all-or-none response

The opening of more and more Na+ ion channels during

is an example of a positive feedback system

During the absolute refractory period, the cell

is insensitive to further stimulation

Chemical synapses are characterized by

the release of neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal

Local hyperpolarization in a synapse is called a(an)

inhibitory postsynaptic potential

Arrange the events of synaptic transmission in correct
sequence: (1) sodium ions diffuse into the cell and cause
a local potential
(2) neurotransmitter binds with receptor on postsynaptic cell
(3) neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft
(4) membrane permeability to sodium ions on postsynaptic cell increases
(5) action potential causes release of neurotransmitter


In the CNS, clusters of gray matter containing cell bodies
are called


Which of the following is correctly associated with the
medulla oblongata?

It contains nuclei for regulation of heart rate and blood vessel diameter.

The pyramids of the medulla contain

descending motor tracts

Which of the following terms does NOT belong with the


Which two portions of the brain are involved in controlling

pons, medulla oblangata

The substantia nigra interconnects with the

basal nuclei

The sleep/wake cycle is influenced by the

reticular formation

The reticular formation

maintains alertness and attention

Which of the following is NOT a function of the cerebellum?

control heart rate

Most sensory input that ascends through the spinal cord
and brainstem projects to the


An individual who has an eating disorder along with
intense thirst and wildly varying body temperatures may have a dysfunction of the


The cerebral gyri increase

the surface area of the cortex

The central sulcus separates the

frontal and parietal lobes

Which of the following is not a lobe of the cerebrum?


The primary somatic sensory or general sensory area is
located in

the postcentral gyrus

The most superficial meningeal layer is

the dura mater

Cerebrospinal fluid fills the

subarachnoid space

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

tentorium cerebelli - base of brain

Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by tissue in the walls and
roofs of the

ventricles of the brain

Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the ____ and is
reabsorbed by the ____.

choroid plexus, arachnoid granulation

Cranial nerve function includes

somatic motor

The oculomotor nerve

adjusts pupil size to the level of lighting

The abducens nerves

are involved in eye movement

A kiss on the cheek would be perceived by impulses from the

trigeminal nerve

Facial expression is regulated by the

facial nerve

A deer hunter lost the hearing in his right ear after his gun exploded when he tried firing it. His hearing loss is the result of damage to what nerve?


The glossopharyngeal nerve

is involved in the sense of taste

Which nerve has branches that extend to the thoracic and abdominal viscera?

vagus nerve

Upper motor neurons

control skeletal muscles

Which of the following statements concerning the descending pathways of the spinal cord is true?

Descending pathways consist of upper and lower motor neurons.

Which of the following is a descending pathway in the spinal cord?

corticospinal tract

Two tracts found within the extrapyramidal system are the

vestibulospinal and rubrospinal

Lesion of the basal nuclei could cause

a slight shaking of the hands or head

The cerebellum functions as a comparator. This means that the cerebellum compares

intended movements with actual movements

The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains

only motor fibers

The sensory root of a spinal nerve is also referred to as

dorsal root

Nerve fibers in the phrenic nerves that innervated the diaphragm arise primarily from what plexuses?


The brachial plexus supplies nerves that function to contract which of the following?

muscles of the arm and forearm

Ventral rami of some spinal nerves join with each other to form a


If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, the regions innervated by that spinal nerve would experience complete loss of


There are _____ enlargements of the spinal cord where nerves supplying the extremities enter and leave.


The spinal cord in contiguous superiorly with the

medulla oblongata

Which of the following is false?
a. The dorsal root of the spinal cord conveys sensory (afferent) nerve impulses to the spinal cord.
b. The posterior horn of the cord contains the cell bodies of motor neurons.
c. The ventral root is formed by the axons of neurons in the lateral and anterior horns.
d. The dorsal and ventral roots unite to form spinal nerves.
e. The ventral root of the spinal cord conveys motor (efferent) nerve impulses away from the spinal cord.

B The posterior horn of the cord contains the cell bodies of motor neurons.

Structurally, the simplest reflex is the

stretch reflex

Reflex arcs

are capable of receiving a stimulus and yielding a response

Which portion of a reflex arc is most likely to be located entirely within the central nervous system?


The sensory root of a spinal nerve is also referred to as

dorsal root

During a spinal tap, cerebrospinal fluid is obtained from which of the following locations?

subarachnoid space

The sensory receptor of the stretch reflex is the

muscle spindle

Muscle spindles

are innervated by gamma motor neurons

Muscles and glands that are capable of producing a response when stimulated by motor neurons are called


The knee-jerk reflex involves which of the following?

sensory, motor and inhibitory interneurons

The reflex that prevents excessive tension in a muscle is the

golgi tendon reflex

A reflex that protects limbs by removing them from painful stimuli is the

withdrawal reflex

Initiating the withdrawal reflex in both legs at the same time would cause one to


If a withdrawal reflex is initiated in one leg, the crossed extensor reflex causes

extension of the opposite leg

Nerve fibers in the phrenic nerves that innervated the diaphragm arise primarily from what plexuses?


The brachial plexus supplies nerves that function to contract which of the following?

muscles of the arm and forearm

Ventral rami of some spinal nerves join with each other to form a


The branch of a spinal nerve that innervates deep muscles on the dorsal thorax is the

dorsal ramus

In order for a molecule to be detected by the olfactory neurons, it must

be dissolved in fluid covering the olfactory epithelium

Which of the following statements is true?

Damaged olfactory neurons are replaced

Which of the following special senses is relayed directly to the cerebral cortex without going to the thalamus?


Taste buds are not associated with _____ papillae.


Damage to which of the following cranial nerves may impair the sense of taste?


The outermost tunic of the eyeball is the


The contractile structure that surrounds the pupil is the


The area of greatest visual acuity is the

fovea centralis

The optic disc

contains no photoreceptor cells

Glaucoma can result from

inhibition of the circulation of aqueous humor

For distant vision,

the ciliary muscles are relaxed

Rhodopsin is found in the


When rhodopsin is exposed to light,

retinal separates from opsin

To which colors are the three different kinds of cones sensitive?

red, blue, and green

The correct pathway for impulses leaving the retina is

photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and optic nerve.

Color vision

is a function of cone cells

Light and dark adaptation involves

pupillary reflexes, variations in rod and cone function and changes in the amount of available rhodopsin

Which of the following is NOT a feature of the retina?

optic chiasm

As an object moves closer to the eye,

eyes rotate medially

Increase in the distance from the eye to the near point of vision can be caused by

the lens becoming more rigid with age

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