Self-confidence & Self-efficacy
Terms in this set (44)
Your belief in your ability to successfully achieve a particular task
Your belief in your ability to perform a particular task to achieve a specific outcome
What are the 2 important points about self-efficacy?
1. Perception (of what you can do with your skills)
2. Task/situation specific
What other forms of self-efficacy may be important other than task-self efficacy?
- Learning new tasks
- Decision making
- Team self-efficacy
How is self-efficacy measured?
What are the factors that cause you to be more self-confident?
- Ability of opposition (if they're poor)
- Control of arousal and nerves
- Previous successful performances
- Playing at home
What are the factors that cause you to be less self-confident?
- Playing away/in an unfamiliar environment
- Playing a different position
- Playing a tough opposition
- Poor/unsuccessful past performances
- Feeling unprepared
- Not in control of arousal and nerves - doubt in abilities
What are the consequences of feeling confident or not confident?
Success - winning
What strategies can you use to boost self-confidence?
- Positive self-talk - telling yourself you can do it, the nerves are a god thing
- Cognitive restructuring - turning your negative thoughts into positive ones
- Relaxation techniques - take 5s and do some deep breaths to calm yourself and refocus
- Imagery - picture yourself winning or getting the goal over
- Pre-performance routine
- Practice - putting in extra practice to fix the skills you aren't so confident at
- Goals - set process/task goals rather than outcome goals
- Modelling - watch others at the same level of ability as you achieving that same task successfully
How is team confidence different to self-confidence?
Team confidence is how competent you are that your team has the ability to perform a task successfully whereas confidence is how competent you are in your own abilities to perform a task successfully
What is the relationship between self-efficacy and performance?
High self-efficacy leads to greater performance and good performance boosts self-efficacy
So SE is both a cause and effect of performance
What are the outcomes of having high self-efficacy?
- Increases performance
- Increases effort and persistence (particularly after failure)
- Better at coping - athletes with high SE cope better after bad performances - less likely to blame on lack of ability and more on lack of effort, react to negative FB in a positive way and see it as a thing to improve on
- More positive and less negative emotions
- Effective cognitions - task focused, more optimistic
- Set more challenging goals and more commitment to goals - you tend to turn up to every training/game and put extra practice in, more committed to your sport and achieving your goals
What are performance accomplishments?
- Previous success/failure
--> Information on how you performed in the past can be used to judge you ability to succeed in the future (i.e. successful performance accomplishments lead to increased SE, bad performances or lots of failures lead to low SE
What influences the ability of performance accomplishments to increase self-efficacy?
Task difficulty - a more difficult task will lead to higher SE
Effort - the less effort required to perform the task leads to highest SE
Support - more support from the coaches, teammates, family & friends leads to highest SE
Timing - the faster we learn a skill the more SE we tend to have (so the ability to achieve success quickly with fewer failures along the way)
Perception of success/failure - need to believe in yourself and perceive that you were responsible for that success
What is the relationship between performance accomplishments and self-efficacy?
More successful performance accomplishments = more self-efficacy
Describe the methodology and results of Gernigon & Delloye (2003). What can you conclude from this study with respect to the effect of performance accomplishments on self-efficacy?
Method: 1/2 the group were given positive FB and told they ran a faster time than they actually did and the other 1/2 were given false FB and told they ran slower than they actually did
- SE was greater after success than failure
- Males: SE increased after success feedback
- Females: SE decreased after failure feedback
- No effect on performance
Can conclude that past experiences or performance accomplishments are important for constructing SE beliefs
What psych methods and strategies would you use to increase performance accomplishments?
Provide opportunities for successful performances - e.g. coach can set up training drills that lead to success, appropriate goal setting (process goals), task focused
Preparation - doing extra training so you feel prepared to succeed will increase SE, simulation training e.g. train with bad weather, with a booing crowd etc.
Attributional retraining - train the athlete to promote positive attributions for success/failure (i.e. to attribute their failures to be controllable and unstable and their successes to be stable and controllable)
Attributions are the reasons an athlete gives for their success or failure (i.e. the explanations about why a particular behaviour occurred) e.g. I lost because the ref made bad calls or I lost because I am uncoordinated etc.
What are the 2 dimensions that characterise attributions?
Controllability: The causes of the outcomes under direct control e.g. effort, tactics (you can directly control these)
Stability: Belief that causes of outcomes are unlikely to change, when its always the same reason for your outcome then its stable e.g. luck (if you think you're always unlucky)
Give an example of a good and bad attribution for a successful performance and a poor performance
- Good attribution: I won because I put in the effort (controllable, unstable)
- Bad attribution: It was a fluke, I got lucky (uncontrollable, stable)
- Good attribution: I failed because my tactics were poor, but I will change them next time (controllable/unstable)
- Bad attribution: I lost because I was unlucky and this is something that always affects my performance (uncontrollable, stable)
What happens to SE and performance after
- Uncontrollable and stable attributions? e.g. the ref was against us, I'm always unlucky
- Controllable and unstable attributions? e.g. I put in lots of effort, I had good tactics
- SE and performance decreases
- SE and performance increases
If you can't change the thing thats causing you to have a bad performance then your always going to have a bad performance and SE will be low, however if you can change the things that caused your bad performance then SE will increase
Define vicarious experiences
- Social comparisons and observational learning (modelling) e.g. watching someone else of similar ability to you perform a specific task successfully will increase your SE because you think "if they can do it, I can do it"
What is cognitive self-modelling and how can it be used to increase SE?
- The use of imagery - comparing yourself to yourself e.g. Picture yourself performing that same kick in the past lets you know you can achieve it now and in the future
Mastery imagery important for building, maintaining and regaining confidence (e.g. building confidence from imagining yourself being successful at mastering a task)
Goal imagery and arousal imagery also important for recreational athletes e.g. when athletes don't have the success experiences to draw on so have to imagine themselves being successful and siting on the podium receiving a medal
What psych methods and strategies can be used to enhance vicarious experiences and increase SE
- Demonstrations - e.g. watching video of similar ability players, watch respected teammates do drill successfully, watch videos of your own good performances
- Imagery - particularly mastery imagery e.g. imagine yourself successfully performing the task
Define verbal persuasion
- Persuasion from others and yourself that you are good at your sport
What influences the ability of verbal persuasion to increase self-efficacy?
Whether we think the person who is giving it is:
- Credible (i.e. you need to believe that they have the skills/qualifications/knowledge)
- Trustworthy (i.e. you need to trust them to be able to believe them)
What psych methods based on verbal persuasion would you use to increase SE?
- Only listen to FB from credible individuals
- Change-orientated FB
- Thought stopping - stop any negative thoughts that will decrease SE
- Replace those negative thoughts with appropriate positive ones
What is interpretation of our emotional/physical state and why does it increase self-efficacy?
Appraisal of physiological symptoms and emotions
- If you perceive the physiological symptoms and emotions as positive then SE will increase
- Our appraisal of physiological symptoms and emotions is reduced due to feelings of injury, pain and fatigue so tends to decrease SE
What psych methods would you use to ensure a positive interpretation of your emotional/physiological state?
- Relaxation/psyching up
- Cognitive restructuring
Rank order the 4 sources of efficacy with respect to their ability to influence efficacy
1. Performance accomplishments
2. Vicarious experiences
3. Verbal persuasion
4. Interpretation of your emotional/physiological state
Define reciprocal determinism
- Theory that a person's behaviour both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment (i.e. Explains that how we act is influenced by the environment, individual characteristics, and behaviour) e.g. you act differently in front of your friends than you do in front of your teacher or your parents
Through what mechanisms does SE influence performance?
- Goals (choice, difficulty and commitment)
- Task choice, effort, persistence, commitment
- Cognitive appraisals and emotional appraisals
Explain overconfidence and why it can have a negative effect on performance?
When individuals believe they can perform better than they have the ability to achieve so it can have a negative effect on SE because you don't actually have the ability to do as well as you think you can and therefore you don't achieve what you want to achieve leading to a decrease in SE
Define collective efficacy
Groups shared belief in its conjoined capability to organise and execute actions to produce a desired goal
What are the key ideas behind collective efficacy?
Its not just a sum of individual self-efficacy its the allocation, coordination and integration of collective resources (i.e. how the team can come together in order to achieve the team goal)
How does the type of team influence the relationship between collective efficacy, self-efficacy and performance?
- Team efficacy is a better predictor of performance than self-efficacy (because the players, irrespective of their own confidence and abilities can come together and perform as a team)
- Team efficacy more affected by team performance outcome than self-efficacy
- Strongest for interdependent tasks (tasks that require the team to work together in order to achieve the team goals)
How would you use performance accomplishments, vicarious experience and verbal persuasion to increase team confidence
Performance accomplishments - team performances
- Team goal setting
- Team based evaluations of prior performance
- Good team preparation
Vicarious experiences - team modelling
- Team demonstrations/modelling (when teams watched videos of success built team efficacy and watching your own team being successful built more team efficacy)
- Imagining your role in a great team performance
- Demonstrate to others that you are confident (your teammates will feed of this and therefore their confidence will increase too)
Verbal persuasion - Team FB
- Positive supportive communication (e.g. high fives after someone scores a goal)
- Avoid negative emotional reactions (ignoring players who make an error will make that player feel worse and bring the team down)
Why is good leadership an important influence on collective efficacy?
- Teams with more confident and effective leaders have greater collective efficacy - direct actions toward achieving goals, model confidence
- Credibility/expertise of leader - teams feel more confident because they know their leader has appropriate knowledge
Explain how you would set up a motivational climate to influence collective efficacy
- Mastery climate where improvement is on motivation and performance rather than winning
What is the role of group cohesion is in building collective efficacy?
- Group cohesion is the individual attraction to the groups task and the group integration towards the task
How does team size influence collective efficacy?
- It can decrease collective efficacy because there's too many people to coordinate
What is RISE - relation inferred self-efficacy?
Your belief in the extent to which others are confident in your ablity
What is the relation between RISE beliefs and self-efficacy?
- Self-efficacy increases when athlete perceived that the coach and teammates believed in their ability
- Greater enjoyment and intentions to remain with the team with greater RISE perceptions
How could you ensure an environment is created so that you support your team-mates RISE beliefs to increase?
Positive talk to each other, high-fives etc.
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