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Secrete products into interstitial fluid and diffuse into blood


secrete products into ducts or lumens or to the outer surface of the body


Hormone that acts locally on neighboring cells (local)


Act on the same cell that secreted them without entering blood (local)

Circulating hormone

enter interstitial fluid and then the bloodstream

lipid soluble hormone

bound to transport proteins (circulating hormone)

water soluble hormone

free (circulating hormone)

steroid hormone

derived from cholesterol

steroid hormone

chemical groups attached to core of the structure makes it unique

steroid hormone

cortisol, testosterone, esterogens, progesterone, aldosterone

thyroid hormones

tyrosine ring with attached iodines

thyroid hormones

very lipid soluble

nitric oxide

hormone & neurotransmitter

peptide and protein hormones

chains of amino acids

peptide and protein hormones

hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones

peptide and protein hormones

ADH, oxytocin, hGH, TSH, ACTH

peptide and protein hormones

insulin, glucagon, EPO

Biogenic amines

modified amino acids

Biogenic amines

catecholamines: NE, epinephrine, dopamine

Biogenic amines

serotonin, melatonin, histamine


derived from arachidonic acid (20 carbon fatty acid)


prostaglandins and leukotrienes


insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis


insulin stimulates triglyceride synthesis

peptide hormones

bind to cell surface receptors

peptide hormones

evoke changes in the activity of existing proteins through a second messenger - cyclic AMP

second messengers

alter the phosphorylation state of existing proteins

second messengers

water soluble (peptide) hormones, bind to cell surface receptors --> production intracellular "---"

second messengers

cAMP, calcium ions, cGMP

second messengers

initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions, often involving phosphylation or dephosphoylation, within the target cell

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