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30 terms

Endocrine Lecture 22

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Endocrine
Secrete products into interstitial fluid and diffuse into blood
Exocrine
secrete products into ducts or lumens or to the outer surface of the body
Paracrine
Hormone that acts locally on neighboring cells (local)
Autocrine
Act on the same cell that secreted them without entering blood (local)
Circulating hormone
enter interstitial fluid and then the bloodstream
lipid soluble hormone
bound to transport proteins (circulating hormone)
water soluble hormone
free (circulating hormone)
steroid hormone
derived from cholesterol
steroid hormone
chemical groups attached to core of the structure makes it unique
steroid hormone
cortisol, testosterone, esterogens, progesterone, aldosterone
thyroid hormones
tyrosine ring with attached iodines
thyroid hormones
very lipid soluble
nitric oxide
hormone & neurotransmitter
peptide and protein hormones
chains of amino acids
peptide and protein hormones
hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones
peptide and protein hormones
ADH, oxytocin, hGH, TSH, ACTH
peptide and protein hormones
insulin, glucagon, EPO
Biogenic amines
modified amino acids
Biogenic amines
catecholamines: NE, epinephrine, dopamine
Biogenic amines
serotonin, melatonin, histamine
eicosanoids
derived from arachidonic acid (20 carbon fatty acid)
eicosanoids
prostaglandins and leukotrienes
hepatocytes
insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis
adipocytes
insulin stimulates triglyceride synthesis
peptide hormones
bind to cell surface receptors
peptide hormones
evoke changes in the activity of existing proteins through a second messenger - cyclic AMP
second messengers
alter the phosphorylation state of existing proteins
second messengers
water soluble (peptide) hormones, bind to cell surface receptors --> production intracellular "---"
second messengers
cAMP, calcium ions, cGMP
second messengers
initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions, often involving phosphylation or dephosphoylation, within the target cell