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reveives input from cortex, thalamus, limbic system & internal organs


provides a link between the external and internal environment and the endocrine system


controls the anterior pituitary gland with different releasing & inhibiting hormones


releases other hormones directly through the posterior pituitary


secrete human Growth Hormone (anterior pituitary)


secrete Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (anterior pituitary)


secrete Prolactin (anterior pituitary)


secrete Follicle Stimulating Hormone and luteinizing Hormone (anterior pituitary)


secrete Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (anterior pituitary)


Releases Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)


Releases Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH or Somatostatin)


Releases Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone (GnRH)


Releases Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)


Releases Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)


Releases Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone


Target cells are liver, skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone


Within target cells increases synthesis of insulin-like growth factors that act locally or enter bloodstream


Insulin-like growth factors: -Increase cell growth and cell division by increasing the uptake of amino acids and synthesis of protein
-Stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue so fatty acids are used for ATP
-decrease use of glucose for ATP production by most body cells so blood glucose levels remain high enough to supply brain


Stimuli for ---: Hypoglycemia, Deep sleep, Decreased fatty acids and increaesd amino acids in the blood, increased sympathetic stimulation


Stimuli for ---: Hyperglycemia, REM sleep, Increased fatty acids and decreased amino acids in the blood, Obesity, Low levels of thyroid hormones, high levels of hGH

growth hormone releasing hormone


growth hormone inhibiting hormone


human growth hormone


insulin like growth factors


Follicle Stimulating Hormone

FSH -- Gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce FSH


In females: - stimulates secretion of estrogen - initiates the formation of follicle within the ovary
In males: Stimulates sperm production in testes

Luteinizing Hormone

GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce LH
Females: secretion of estrogen and progesterone, ovulation, formation of corpus lutem
Males: secretion of testosterone


Hypothalamus regulates lactotroph cells by secreting PRH and PIH (dopamine)
-causes milk production
-suckling reduces levels of hypothalamic inhibition and prolactin levels rise along with milk production

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

-Secreted by corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary
-Excessive levels of CRH from the hypothalamus increases MSH release from the anterior pituitary
-PIH inhibits MSH release
-Function unclear in humans but high levels increase skin pigmentation

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

-Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release ACTH
-ACTH stimulates release of glucocorticoids (mainly coritsol) from arenal cortex
-ACTH release is also stimulated by hypoglycemia, physical trauma, and IL-1

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

-Hypothalamus regulates thyrotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce TSH (thyrotropin)
-TSH stimulates the synthesis & secretion of T3 and T4 (thyroid hormones)
-Metabolic rate stimulated


Regulation of --- (TSH) Release:
-Hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
-TRH causes release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary cells
-Thyroid gland cells activated to secrete more T3 & T4

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