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32 terms

Endocrine Lecture 23

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hypothalamus
reveives input from cortex, thalamus, limbic system & internal organs
hypothalamus
provides a link between the external and internal environment and the endocrine system
hypothalamus
controls the anterior pituitary gland with different releasing & inhibiting hormones
hypothalamus
releases other hormones directly through the posterior pituitary
somatotrophs
secrete human Growth Hormone (anterior pituitary)
thyrotrophs
secrete Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (anterior pituitary)
lactotrophs
secrete Prolactin (anterior pituitary)
gonadotrophs
secrete Follicle Stimulating Hormone and luteinizing Hormone (anterior pituitary)
corticotrophs
secrete Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (anterior pituitary)
hypothalamus
Releases Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
hypothalamus
Releases Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH or Somatostatin)
hypothalamus
Releases Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
hypothalamus
Releases Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)
hypothalamus
Releases Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
hypothalamus
Releases Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
HGH
Target cells are liver, skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone
HGH
Within target cells increases synthesis of insulin-like growth factors that act locally or enter bloodstream
HGH
Insulin-like growth factors: -Increase cell growth and cell division by increasing the uptake of amino acids and synthesis of protein
-Stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue so fatty acids are used for ATP
-decrease use of glucose for ATP production by most body cells so blood glucose levels remain high enough to supply brain
GHRH
Stimuli for ---: Hypoglycemia, Deep sleep, Decreased fatty acids and increaesd amino acids in the blood, increased sympathetic stimulation
GHIH
Stimuli for ---: Hyperglycemia, REM sleep, Increased fatty acids and decreased amino acids in the blood, Obesity, Low levels of thyroid hormones, high levels of hGH
growth hormone releasing hormone
GHRH
growth hormone inhibiting hormone
GHIH
human growth hormone
hGH
insulin like growth factors
IGFs
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
FSH -- Gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce FSH
FSH
In females: - stimulates secretion of estrogen - initiates the formation of follicle within the ovary
In males: Stimulates sperm production in testes
Luteinizing Hormone
GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce LH
Females: secretion of estrogen and progesterone, ovulation, formation of corpus lutem
Males: secretion of testosterone
Prolactin
Hypothalamus regulates lactotroph cells by secreting PRH and PIH (dopamine)
-causes milk production
-suckling reduces levels of hypothalamic inhibition and prolactin levels rise along with milk production
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
-Secreted by corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary
-Excessive levels of CRH from the hypothalamus increases MSH release from the anterior pituitary
-PIH inhibits MSH release
-Function unclear in humans but high levels increase skin pigmentation
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
-Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release ACTH
-ACTH stimulates release of glucocorticoids (mainly coritsol) from arenal cortex
-ACTH release is also stimulated by hypoglycemia, physical trauma, and IL-1
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
-Hypothalamus regulates thyrotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce TSH (thyrotropin)
-TSH stimulates the synthesis & secretion of T3 and T4 (thyroid hormones)
-Metabolic rate stimulated
Thyrotropin
Regulation of --- (TSH) Release:
-Hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
-TRH causes release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary cells
-Thyroid gland cells activated to secrete more T3 & T4