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Old Regime

"The Old Order" society controlled by the First Estate (clergy) and Second Estate (nobility) in France prior to 1789, was overthrown during the French Revolution

Three Estates

Three classes in French society - 1st Estate, 2nd Estate, and Third Estate

Louis XVI

Last King of France, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution

Marie Antoinette

Wife of Louis XVI, also executed by guillotine

National Assembly

Formed to draft a constitution in France, June 17, 1789

Tennis Court Oath

The National Assembly was locked out of its meeting hall, so members went to a tennis court and swore to continue work until until a constitution was written


A fortress, prison, and armory in Paris that was attacked and destroyed by Parisians because of high bread prices

Legislative Assembly

Formed by order of the constitution in 1791, it was suspended and later replaced by the National Convention

Sans Culottes

Revolutionaries in Paris who wore short pants and plain clothes during the French Revolution


One of three clubs in in government, radicals that believed the King should be executed


Execution machine, death by decapitation, was supposed to be quick and humane

Maximilien Robespierre

Head of Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, eventually was himself executed, which ended the Reign of Terror, eventually was himself executed, which ended the Reign of Terror

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Document adopted by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789 that declared all men free and equal before the law

Napoleon Bonaparte

Took part in coup d' etat that that overthrew the Directory in 1799, became Emperor of France in 1804, built empire by military victories and was ultimately defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815


A vote by the people of an entire country or district to decide on an issue

Concordat of 1801

A reestablishment of relations between Napoleon's government and the Catholic Church after the French Revolution

Napoleonic Code

Civil code developed and written during Napoleon's rule in 1804

Guerilla Warfare

Irregular form of warfare

Congress of Vienna

Peace agreement in Europe negotiated by Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain, this agreement exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean Sea


Site of the final battle of the Napoleonic Wars 1815, Napoleon lost and was forced to exile, dying in 1821

Klemens von Metternich

Most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna, Austrian foreign minister

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