CHAPTER 15 & 16

1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe?
a. Kepler
b. Copernicus
c. Newton
d. Hubble
e. Galileo
2. The big bang theory and the theory of the steady state universe differ
a. because only the big bang theory states that the universe is expanding.
b .because only the steady state theory states that the universe is expanding.
c. in that only the steady state theory lacks a specific beginning for the universe.
d. in that only the steady state universe incorporates an idea about the missing dark matter.
e. only in name.
3.When astronomers look out at our universe, they see all
a. other planets moving away from us.
b. other galaxies moving away from us.
c. asteroids moving toward us.
d. supernovas moving away from us.
e. other galaxies moving toward us.
4. Which of the following was not a contribution to cosmology by Edwin Hubble?
a. the proof that there are other galaxies
b. the idea that far galaxies are moving faster than those near
c. the discovery of the cosmic red shift
d. the realization that evidence for the big bang can come from studies of abundances of chemical elements
e. All of these were contributions made by Hubble.
5.Hubble's law tells us that
a. the distance to other galaxies can be measured by calculating the blue shift of the light we receive from them.
b. the rate at which a galaxy recedes from the Earth is proportional to the square of the distance from the Earth.
c. the rate at which a galaxy advances toward the Earth is proportional to its distance from the Earth.
d. the distance to other galaxies can be measured by calculating the red shift of the light we receive from them.
e. the rate at which a galaxy moves is the Hubble constant.
6.The most recent "freezing" of the universe involved the creation of
a. nuclei.
b. atoms.
c. elementary particles.
d. quarks.
e. molecules.
7.The redshift surveys of the 1980s
a. determined the velocity of superclusters.
b. were significant in calculating Hubble's constant.
c. measured the distance to thousands of galaxies.
d. definitively proved the big bang theory.
e. provided a foundation for planetary exploration.
8. The discovery of a cosmic microwave background
a. supported the idea of a steady state universe.
b. showed that the universe has a constant heat source.
c. proved that matter in the universe is grouped in superclusters.
d. gave support to the big bang theory.
e. indicated that supernovas produced all known elements.
9.What were the first three elements formed in the big bang?
a. hydrogen, lithium, and helium
b. hydrogen, oxygen, and helium
c. helium, oxygen, and carbon
d. carbon, oxygen, and deuterium
e. helium, oxygen, lithium
10.According to the current ideas about the origin of the universe, which one of the following forces separated at 10-43 seconds?
a. the gravitational force
b. the electromagnetic force
c. the strong force
d. the weak force
e. All of these forces froze out at the same time.
11. Which wavelength of radiation is associated with our expanding universe?
a. 7.35 nanometers
b.7.35 millimeters
c. 7.35 centimeters
d.7.35 meters
e. 7.35 kilometers
12. Which of the following is constructed completely from atoms made during the big bang?
a. a leaf
b. the air you are breathing
c. bone
d. a cinder block
e. None of the above is formed completely from atoms created during the big bang.
13. According to the big bang theory, what accompanied the freezing of the universe at 10-35 second after time zero?
a. Antimatter was eliminated.
b. All four fundamental forces were unified.
c. Stable nuclei formed.
d. There was a short period of inflation.
e. The strong force separated from the weak force.
14. At what point after the big bang did the elementary particles form?
a. 10-43 second
b.10-35 second
c.10-5 second
d. three minutes
e. 500,000 years
15. What is the basis for evidence supporting the theory of an open expanding universe?
a. the laws of gravity
b. the universe's mass
c. the proportion of dark matter
d. a newly discovered supernova
e. all of the above
16. Because of research with high energy particle accelerators, scientists have direct experimental checks for the evolution of the universe back to
a. 10-43 second after the big bang.
b.10-35 second from time zero.
c.10-10 second from the beginning.
d. three minutes after the big bang.
e. one million years following the origin.
17. Which statement about dark matter is accepted by most astronomers?
a. Dark matter is missing from the Milky Way.
b. Dark matter exerts centrifugal forces on antimatter.
c. Dark matter emits leptons.
d. Dark matter interacts with ordinary matter through a gravitational force.
e. all the above
18. What experimental evidence supports the big bang theory?
a. universal contraction
b. creationism
c. cosmic microwave radiation
d. abundance of lithium, hydrogen, and helium
e. c and d
19. Antimatter is fairly rare in the universe because
a. antimatter is dark matter that is very difficult to detect with today's technology.
b. cosmic microwave background radiation absorbs antimatter in space.
c. antimatter is a short-lived transient state for quarks.
d. laboratory research indicates that matter was more plentiful in the early and annihilated the antimatter.
e. each galaxy produces a specific type of matter, according to Hubble's law.
20. The rate at which new stars are formed
a. has been constant since the big bang.
b. was ten times higher seven billion years ago.
c. was ten times slower seven billion years ago.
d. cannot be calculated with current technology.
e. has varied randomly since the big bang.
21. Which of the following describe a quasar?
a. highly energetic
b. dark matter
c. compressed to the size of the Earth
d. part of a supercluster
e. all of the above
22. Before the first stable nuclei were formed, what was the makeup of the universe?
a. hydrogen and helium
b. elementary particles
c. atoms
d. molecules
e. all of the above
23. Evidence for the big bang includes the
a. observation that the universe is expanding.
b. independent evidence that microwave radiation is coming from all directions in space.
c. fact that the average temperature of the universe 2.7 Kelvin.
d. abundance of light elements.
e. all of the above
24. How far away is a galaxy that is moving away from Earth at 100,000 km/s? Assume 50 km/s Mpc for the Hubble constant.
a. 2000 Mpc
b. more than 6 light years
c. 8000 Mpc
d. more than 4 light years
e. a and b
1. According to the nebular hypothesis, the solar system began as
a. a rapidly rotating sun.
b. a cloud of dust and gas.
c. a cloud containing approximately equal amounts of all naturally occurring elements.
d. two comets that collided with a tremendous impact.
e. The nebular hypothesis addresses only the formation of stars, not planets.
2. Which scientist is credited with the discovery of Pluto?
a. Percival Lowell
b. Isaac Newton
c. Clyde Tombaugh
d. Galileo Galilei
e. Pierre Laplace
3. If only Newton's laws of motion were applied to the solar system,
a. Venus's orbit could be the reverse of Earth's orbit.
b. Earth's moon could rise in the west and set in the east.
c. Mar's orbit could be perpendicular to Jupiter's orbit.
d. Saturn's rings could at random angles to their current plane.
e. all of the above
4. What two elements comprise most of a nebula?
a. hydrogen and helium
b. hydrogen and nitrogen
c. oxygen and lithium
d. carbon and hydrogen
e. helium and lithium
5. Why are the Jovian planets formed from materials different from the terrestrial planets?
a. Terrestrial planets were protected by the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
b. The composition of elements in a planet was a random process after the big bang.
c. When the solar system first formed, the heaviest elements sank toward the center of the nebulae and the lightest elements floated out.
d. Gaseous Jovian planets, formed farther away from the heat of the Sun, are formed from light weight nebulae "dust."
e. Only the terrestrial planets formed from planetesimals.
6. The birth of a solar system would look like
a. a huge explosion of rocks and fire.
b. a meteor shower.
c. thick dust clouds circling a new star.
d. a thickening Jovian plane.
e. nothing we could ever see or imagine.
7. The Earth's layered composition is a consequence of
a. the great bombardment.
b. differentiation of materials.
c. isolation.
d. condensation currents.
e. plate tectonics.
8. The inner core at the center of the Earth
a. contains the heaviest elements of the Earth's mass.
b. is made from rocks similar to those on the Earth's surface.
c. contains a mixture of solids, liquids, and gases.
d. is under low pressure, but at a very high temperature.
e. all of the above
9. The mantle of the Earth can be described as
a. the metallic core.
b. containing hot, melted rock.
c. the surface of the Earth.
d. primarily gaseous.
e. helium, oxygen, magnesium, silicon.
10. In our solar system, we can say that moons
a. were most likely formed by spinning planets throwing off big chunks of material.
b. are all about the same size.
c. have less gravitational pull than that found on any planet.
d. usually have active volcanoes.
e. have been found orbiting all planets except for Mercury and Venus.
11. The composition of the Earth's Moon is most like
a. Mars.
b. the Earth's crustal material.
c. an asteroid.
d. the Earth's mantle.
e. a comet.
12.Scientists study meteorites
a. because they contain the material from which the solar system was made.
b. to find out more about how and when the Earth was created.
c. to find out more about other parts of the solar system.
d. for all the above reasons.
e. Scientists cannot study meteorites because they burn up when they hit the Earth's atmosphere.
13. After the Earth was formed
a. it was bombarded by huge chunks of rock.
b. outgassing ended.
c. its atmosphere remained virtually unchanged.
d. the densest materials collected as the Earth's crust.
e. its temperature was too cold to support life.
14. A comparison of asteroids and terrestrial planets would reveal that both are
a. made primarily of gases.
b. relatively rocky and small.
c. composed of chunks of ice surrounded by solid material.
d. located beyond the effect of solar heat and wind.
e. large and dense, compared to the Jovian planets.
15. The "big splash" theory of the Moon's formation
a. was disproven during the Apollo lunar mission.
b. states that the Moon was formed elsewhere in the Solar System and was captured by Earth's gravitational force.
c. suggests that the Moon was thrown from a spinning Earth.
d. states that the Earth was struck by a huge object, causing a large amount of mantle material to be blown into orbit.
e. suggests that the Moon was formed by light, less dense materials that floated into the orbit around the Earth.
16. The early atmosphere on Earth included
a. methane (CH4).
b. water vapor (H2O).
c. ammonia (NH3).
d. carbon dioxide (CO2).
e. all of the above
17. What are some health hazards of long space trips?
a. Astronauts can develop skin cancer from direct UV-rays.
b. Unidentified microbes create a possible danger of infection.
c. Weight gain is common because of the high calorie foods.
d. Bone mass is lost increasing the chance of breaks.
e. All of the above can happen.
18. An astronaut standing on Mars and attempting to look at Jupiter might have her view partly blocked by the intervening
a. Oort Cloud.
b. rings of Saturn.
c. asteroid belt.
d. moon Triton.
e. Sun.
19. The Earth's atmosphere has probably been affected by all of the following except for
a. volcanoes.
b. strong solar winds.
c. Amazon jungles.
d. the number of living things on Earth.
e. increased amounts of hydrogen and helium.
20. The process that formed the structure of the Earth and other terrestrial planets is
a. convection.
b. gravity.
c. differentiation
d. acceleration.
e. tectonics.
21. Transfer of material from space to Earth
a. stopped after the great bombardment.
b. started after the great bombardment.
c. has been measured at 20 metric tons daily.
d. will double the mass of the Earth in 4 billion years.
e. continues at an estimated rate of 20 metric tons annually.
22. What new astronomical information resulted from the impact of the comet Shoemaker-Levy on Jupiter in 1994?
a. effect of hydrogen bombs on Jupiter's atmosphere
b. composition of atmosphere beneath the planet's surface
c. the number of volcanoes located within 100 km of the impact
d. amount of water in Jupiter's atmosphere
e. mineral analysis of Jupiter's core
35. What was accomplished by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2?
a. remote sensing of the atmosphere of Venus
b. collected samples from the asteroid belt
c. paved the way for the Moon landings
d. clocked winds on Mercury
e. assessment of the outer Solar System environment
36. How can meteor showers be predicted?
a. Meteors follow the jet stream in the upper atmosphere.
b. Meteors are in known orbits around the sun after comets.
c. Meteors rise in the east and set in the west.
d. Telescopes on satellites detect meteors months in advance of their entry into the Earth's atmosphere.
e. Calculations made by the Divine Calculator have been used to produce meteor shower schedules.
37. Which of the following characteristics does the Earth share with all other bodies in the solar system?
a. formed from matter ejected by the Sun
b. move in circular orbits
c. similar chemical composition
d. equally dense
e. gravitationally bound to the Sun