Diabetes

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

diabetes is the leading cause of???
amputation, adult blindness and renal failure
what number cause of death in us
7th
liver's role in glucose regulation....when high blood glucose?
insulin released to cause a increase in glycogen storage, decreased gluconeogenesis, decrease glycogenolysis
diabetes defined
group of metabolic dx with defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
type 1 dm defined
insulin deficiency due to beta cell dysfunction
type 2 dm defined
insulin resistance due to progressive insulin secretory defect
other causes of dm and dm classifications
genetic defects in beta cell function or insulin action, dx of exocrine pancreas (CF), drug/chemical induced
type 1 dm etiology
-5-10% of all cases
-autoimmune
-genetic predisposition + trigger
-absolute deficiency
-dx usually under 30
-antibodies- GAD, ICA, IAA
increase beta cell destruction in type 1 dm causes what for c peptide
decrease in c peptide
type 1 dm initial presentation
nocturia, enuresis, polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, polyphagia, blurred vision, n/v, skin/bladder infection, vaginitis
type 2 dm phases
1- insulin resistance and impaired insulin sensitivity, compensatory insulin hypersecretion
2- pre dm, impairment of b cell insulin secretion, glucose level rises
3- progressive impairment of b cell secretion, lack of insulin sensitivity, increase hepatic glucose production
type 2 dm etiology
-symptoms- polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss
-80-90% of all cases
-genetic element and environment factors
diagnostic criteria for dm
1. alc > 6.5%
2. fasting plasma glucose >126
3. 2 hour OGTT >200
4. classic symptoms of hyperglycemia and random glucose >200
differentiating type 1 and type 2 dm
-type 1 dm- presence of antibodies, ketones in urine, c peptide decrease, typically young, lean
-type 2 dm- overweight, older, c peptide increase/elevated
recommendation for testing for dm
1. bmi >25 + RF
2. anyone over 45
test q 3 years if values are normal
AADE self-care behaviors (7)
healthy eating, being active, monitoring, taking medication, coping mechanism, reducing risk, problem solving
labs following diagnosis of dm
a1c, fasting lipid, lft, urine albumin-creat ratio, creat and GFR
when to draw a TSH level
women >50, dyslipidemia, T1dm
alc testing for compliant and controlled DM
twice yearly
known sources of inaccuracy of HGBA1C
-hemoglobinopathy
-anemia
-pregnancy
-hepatic or renal disease