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Major human mineralcorticoid is --- (zona glomerulosa):
-Increases absorption (GI) and reabsorption (kidney) of Na+ with Cl-; bicarbonate and water following it
-promotes excretion of K+ H+ (secretion in kidney)


Hypersecretion from adrenal tumor produces ---:
-high blood pressure caused by retention of Na+ and resultant increase in plasma volume


major human glucocorticoid is ---:
Key function is regulation of metabolism during stress
-increases rate of protein catabolism and lipolysis
-promotes gluconeogenesis
-provides resistance to stress by making nutrients available


(Zona fasciculata)
-Raises blood pressure by vasoconstriction
-Has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive action
-reduces release of histamine from mast cells
-decreases capillary permeability
-depresses phagocytosis
-inhibits white blood cells

Cushing's syndrome

-Hypersecretion of glucocoritcoids
-Redistribution of fat to face
-Spindly arms and legs due to muscle loss
-Poor wound healing
-Bruises easily

Addison's Disease

-Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone
-Hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, low blood pressure
-Dehydration due to decreased Na+ in blood
-Mimics skin darkening effects of MSH
-Potential cardiac arrest


(zona reticularis)
Small amount of weak androgens (male hormones) produced
-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
-Insignificant in males
-May contribute to sex drive in females
-converted to a form of estrogen in postmenopausal women

Adrenal Medulla

-Chromaffin Cells receive direct innervation from sympathetic nervous system
-develop from same tissue as postganglionic sympathetic neurons
-acts as a modified sympathetic ganglion
-Produce 80% of epinephrine (adrenaline) and 20% norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
-Hormones are sympathomimetic
-effects mimic those of sympathetic NS
-cause fight-flight behavior

Diabetes Mellitus

--- marked by hyperglycemia
-excessive urine production (polyuria)
-excessive thirst (polydipsia)
-excessive eating (polyphagia)
Type 1 -> deficiency of insulin (typically juvenile onset)
Type 2 - > insulin insensitivity (typically adult onset)

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