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Social Psychology

Research on the social psychological underpinnings of prejudice might be said to have its roots in research by _______________________.
Adorno and Allport.
Which of the following statements regarding recent advances in behavioral genetics is false?
These developments are of interest to clinical but not social psychologists.
What distinguishes social psychology from other specialties in psychology is its _______________________.
social psychological theories are as broad in scope as common sense.
According to your textbook, one of the people who had the greatest impact on the developing field of social psychology was not a psychologist. Who was this person?
Adolf Hitler
It could be argued that social psychology supplements common sense about human behavior in all of the following ways except that ____________________.
social psychological findings tend to support most intuitive beliefs about human behavior.
Relative to experimental studies, the primary disadvantage of correlation studies is that __________________.
cause and effect cannot be determined with them.
Research using meta-analysis procedures _______________________.
statistically assesses the consistency of several tests of the same hypothesis.
Latrell, the editor of a popular sports magazine, would like to know more about the demographics of the magazine's readers. He designs a questionnaire to assess this information and sends it to a random sample of the magazine's readers. Latrell is conducting a(n) ____________________________.
Which of the following statements about conceptual variables is false?
There is usually only one way to operationally define them.
External validity refers to the degree to which ______________________.
there can be reasonable confidence that the same results would be obtained for other people and in other situations.
Research using new technologies has determined that _________________________.
different areas of the brain are activated when people are shown photos of themselves as opposed to photos of others.
Which of the following statements concerning autobiographical memories is false?
People tend to have the most accurate recall for emotional versus unemotional events.
Erving Goffman (1959) argued that life was much like a theater and that people act out various roles. Goffman's ideas are clearly evident in the social psychological study of _________________.
Which of the following statements about ironic processes of mental self-control is false?
They happen more among individuals who are low in stress.
Jomei feels that he cannot be happy if his family is not happy. Jomei has an _____ view of self.
Among your group of friends, Chandler is the only one who is ever late for your weekly game of tiddlywinks. You've noticed that he is late every week and that he is also late for class, parties, movies, weddings, sporting events, and dental appointments. According to Kelley's covariation model of attribution, Chandler's behavior would be described as ________________________.
low in consensus, high in consistency, and low in distinctiveness
The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to attribute _____________________.
another person's behavior to personal factors rather than to the situation
Veronica is talking to her parents about her French professor and claims that he gave her a failing grade on her last paper because he is arrogant, cold, and indifferent to the progress of his students. Veronica is making a(n) ____________________.
personal attribution
Cosmo is convinced that his accountant is a drug addict. To determine whether he is correct, Cosmo asks his friends if the accountant sniffs a lot, uses slang when he speaks, or frequently excuses himself to use the men's room-three behaviors Cosmo believes are characteristic of drug addicts. Cosmo's methods illustrate ________________________.
confirmatory hypothesis testin
Traits that suggest the presence of other traits and that exert a powerful influence on final impressions are called ____________________.
central traits
Participants in an experiment learn about eight positive and four negative behaviors performed by members of group A. They also learn about four positive and two negative behaviors performed by members of group B. Which pattern of results is most likely?
Group B will be liked less because of a perceived link between the distinctive events of membership in the smaller group and performing fewer negative behaviors.
The individual most likely to exhibit ingroup favoritism and outgroup derogation is a member of a _____ group who _____ with the group.
minority; strongly identifies
According to social role theory, gender differences in social behavior are the result of _________________.
the unequal gender-based division of labor
Bonnie dislikes all lawyers. This is an example of ________________.
Which of the following is an essential requirement in order for stereotype threat to occur?
The individual in question must be aware of negative stereotypes about his or her group.
Which of the following does not demonstrate the influence of gender stereotypes?
Newborn boys tend to be taller and weigh more than newborn girls.
Conclusions regarding the accuracy of stereotypes are best described as _______________________.
mixed because some stereotypes seem to be based on completely inaccurate information whereas others seem to have a kernel of truth
Forming subtypes for individuals who do not conform to a group stereotype __________________________.
serves to protect the stereotype from change
Individuals with a strong social dominance orientation are least likely to ____________________.
prefer to live in an egalitarian society
Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between competition and prejudice is false?
Superordinate goals help diffuse conflict between children, but not adults.
When an audience member does not feel personally involved or invested in the topic of a persuasive message, she is likely to _____________________.
none of the above
Which of the following has not been demonstrated in research on role-playing?
Role-playing effects are stronger among those low in need for cognition than those high in need for cognition.
Public opinion pollsters, in trying to assess attitudes about particular subjects, have become aware that attitude responses seem to be affected by all of the factors below except _______________________.
the length of the questionnaire
Sam hates Celine Dion with a passion. One day he meets Celine at a party. She tries to win him over by giving him her new CD. In which of the following scenarios would Sam's attitudes towards Celine be most likely to change after hearing the CD?
She offers him a coupon for 10% off his next dry cleaning order in exchange for listening to it.
The phenomenon of insufficient justification does not support ______________________________.
the assumption that larger rewards produce greater change
All of the following can help to explain why the door-in-the-face technique can increase compliance except ______________________.
psychological commitment
Pluralistic ignorance about alcohol use on college campuses is a good example of a psychological process affected by ____________________________.
diminishing marginal returns
Normative influence tends to occur primarily when people ____________________________.
fear the negative social consequences of appearing deviant
As he was about to enter the mall, Evan was approached by someone and asked to wear a small green ribbon on his shirt to show his support for the "Save the Squirrels" campaign. Evan wasn't quite sure that squirrels were actually endangered, but he agreed to wear the ribbon. A week later, Evan was approached again and asked to contribute $10 to help save the squirrels. Though he would have rather spent his money elsewhere, he agreed. Evan has been the victim of __________________________.
the foot-in-the-door technique
Women conform more and men conform less when they believe they are being observed. Eagly (1987) argues that this occurs because ____________________________.
people feel greater pressure in public to behave in ways consistent with their gender-role
A group of students is discussing whether same-sex couples should be allowed to marry. The students begin the discussion with opinions that are somewhat in favor of gay marriage. If group polarization occurs ____________________.
students will be more strongly supportive of gay marriage after the discussion
The tendency for groups to become more extreme in their positions following discussion is called ___________________.
group polarization
Research on information processing in groups suggests that __________________________.
if the individuals who comprise the group are prone to rely on a particular heuristic, the group will be even more likely to use this heuristic
Biased sampling in groups is the process whereby ___________________________.
information that is known by many group members tends to enter into the discussion more than information known only by a few
Sharice has just joined the theater group in her community. It is likely that __________________.
she is optimistic that joining the group will be beneficial
Esteban's work group has been assigned a new project by management. Before deciding how much effort to exert on this new assignment, Esteban considers how important the group goals are to him and whether his input will help the group reach its goals. Esteban's thinking is most consistent with _______________________.
the collective effort mode
Conflict between groups is least likely to be exacerbated by ___________________.
a mismatch in the perceptions each side has of the other
Cottrell et al. (1968) found that dominant responses were no more frequent among people working in the presence of blindfolded others than among people working alone. This finding is consistent with which theory of social facilitation?
The evaluation apprehension theory.
Which of the following concerning process loss is false?
Process loss is restricted to disjunctive tasks.
According to Janis, all of the following are behavioral symptoms of groupthink except _______________________.
pessimism about what might happen
According to social exchange theory, an outcome from a relationship will produce satisfaction if it falls above a person's ____________________.
comparison level
According to your textbook, the single best predictor of whether two people will get together is ____________________________.
physical proximity
Hugh is a participant in a research study and is asked to evaluate a series of photographs of models from fashion magazines. When he is then asked to rate the physical attractiveness of his own girlfriend, he is likely to ________________.
demonstrate a contrast effect and rate her as less attractive than he ordinarily would
Joshua is attracted to Daniel because of his warm eyes and great smile. Daniel is attracted to Joshua because of his muscular body. Joshua and Daniel are in Murstein's ________________.
stimulus stage
Which of the following best reflects the benefits and cost of being attractive?
While attractiveness often brings a social advantage to attractive individuals, it can cause them to doubt the sincerity of others' praise for their work.
The finding that infants spend more time looking at attractive, as compared to unattractive, faces supports the hypothesis that _______________.
beauty is objective
Which of the following has been demonstrated in research?
People's attachment styles relate to the type of romantic relationships they have.
Pinel and colleagues (2006) refer to "I-sharing" as an important form of similarity whereby individuals share ______________________.
a subjective experience
Sid is mildly attracted to Nancy. If his parents forbid him to see Nancy, Sid is likely to __________________________.
become more attracted to Nancy
Research concerning coping with divorce suggests that _________________________.
immediately after a divorce, life satisfaction ratings tend to increase somewhat
Donny knows that Marie doesn't really need any help learning the steps to their new dance routine, but he continues to demonstrate the steps and offer helpful advice. Donny is engaging in _________________.
Burnstein et al. (1994) found that students in both the United States and Japan indicated a greater willingness to help youthful relatives rather than older relatives. This finding is consistent with ____________________.
kin selection
Eisenberg et al. (1999) found that the extent to which preschool children exhibited spontaneous helping behavior predicted how helpful they would be in later childhood and early adulthood. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that _______________________.
there are stable individual differences in helping
The empathy-altruism hypothesis maintains that, regardless of how easy it is to escape from a situation, people will help someone else if their motives are _______________.
Which of the following is not consistent with the predictions of evolutionary psychology and kin
Adults indicate a greater willingness to help older as compared to younger relatives.
One form of violence that seems to be fairly consistent across cultures is _________________.
Though women are more likely than men to aggress in an intimate relationship, men's aggression in such relationships differs in that it typically _______________________.
has more severe consequences
The consumption of nonviolent pornography seems to lead to _______________________.
sexual aggression but not other types of aggression
The finding that male-to-male violence occurs primarily in response to status challenges, but male-to-female violence occurs primarily in response to sexual jealousy supports the __________________.
evolutionary perspective on aggression
Nikki, who watches a lot of violent television shows as well as horror movies, thinks that the world is much more violent than it really is. Her overestimate is likely to be due to ___________________.