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Terms in this set (171)
Using _______ to prevent problem bx is considered a proactive approach
BIP is developed for what reason
to decrease problem behaviors and teach or increase replacement behaviors in all settings
Pairing has occurred when...
the teacher is paired with the reinforcement
if escape behaviors are occurring frequently, it is often due to
the reinforcement schedule being too thin
Levi screams whenever he wants his toy. What would be a good antecedent intervention?
Functional communication training (teaching manding)
_______ the pace of instruction can decrease the likelihood of escape behaviors
the inter-trial interval should last...
approx. 1/2 second
cameron has tantrums and non-compliance for the function of escaping a task. What antecedent interventions would be best to use in the BIP?
stimulus demand fading
the Wait and Transitions program are both used as antecedent interventions for...
behaviors to gain item/activity
Joseph engages in shouting out behaviors for the function of gaining attention. What antecedent interventions would be best to use in the BIP
Using ___________ to prevent behaviors is considered a proactive approach
There are three types of behavior intervention strategies in the BIP, they are
Antecedent interventions, replacement behaviors, and consequence interventions
Systematic desensitization/exposure therapy is most often used to treat
Errorless teaching is most appropriate to prevent
behaviors to escape/avoid something
a motor activity schedule could
reduce the motivation for self stimulatory behavior
Reinforcement is any event the ________ behavior, and ________________ that behavior
Another way to conceptualize negative in negative reinforcement and in negative punishment is...
what precedes behavior
When Kay talked to nancy she liked to complain about work. Nancy would listen and try to cheer her up by talking with her. The more nancy talked with Kay the more she complained. By talking with Kay after she complained, Nancy used what principle
The field of ABA focuses on _________ behavior
Who was the founder of modern behaviorism
What follows behavior
the definition of behavior is
any observable movement of a living thing
Jane rarely used her phone. Whenever her annoying coworker approaches her and she on on the phone her coworker walks away. Now Jane is always talking on the phone. What principle of behavior accounts for this increase?
Alyse didnt sing in music class often. One day her teacher saw her singing and compliemented her voice in front of the class. Alyse stopped singing in class altogether. What principle did the music teacher use on Alyse's singing bx?
__________ schedules of reinforcement are when only some of the responses are reinforced
Joshua cracked jokes during the movies he watched in history class every week. When he did this the teacher removed him from the class and had him sit in the library. Joshua stopped cracking jokes during the movies. This is an example of...
Hilary has autism and she likes to push buttons on her toys over and over. After a while, to her parents satisfaction, the batteries wore out of the toy. Hilary stopped pushing the buttons on the toy. what decreased this behavior
motivation operations increase the relative value of a particular reinforcer and also
increase the likelihood of any behavior that has produced that reinforcer in the past
Jake yelled when he wanted music turned off and his parents would turn it off. One day, his parents decided to ignore his yelling. Jake's yelling initially increased then decreased over the next couple days as they continued to ignore. What occurred?
Ratio schedules are based on _______ and interval schedules are based on _______
the number of responses; passage of time
motivating operations variables in the environment that alter the relative value of a _______ at a particular time
In the book , Ethics for Behavior Analysts, Bailey and Burch outlined 9 guidelines that can and should be followed when __________
making decisions about out clients
Behavior analysts adhere to the code of ethics that suggests guidelines for conduct including teaching what kind of skills?
Respect autonomy, benefit others and be just are all
from ethics for behavior analysts by bailey and Burch
the main goal of HIPAA was to
allow people to carry insurance from one employer to another and to protect the privacy and security of medical records and information
the one time you should violate confidentiality is when..
there is suspicion of neglect/abuse
punishment is used to
Whenever punishment is going to be used, the client or the person whom makes decisions for the client, such as a parent or guardian, must ______
give informed consent
When you observed sally she kicked 7 times. Your observation was from 1pm to 3pm, sally's kicking rate per hour is...
what can be used to predict for behavior in the future
a trend line in the direction of the behavior change
During baseline, behavior is assessed in the...
Listener responding involves responding ______ to the verbal behavior of another
when teaching receptive identification it is useful to begin with the identification of
If shown an array of photos and asked, "Give me the one that you jump on" this is an example of...
the ABC of receptive language is...
antecedent: another person's verbal language; Behavior: non-verbal response; Consequence: non-specific reinforcement
In receptive identification it is recommended that the array of items should:
increase in size and become messier
Objects are generally presented before pictures when teaching receptive identification (T/F)
In the receptive instructions program, generally the first step should be:
give instructions to preform referred tasks in context
touching or looking at a picture or object when it is named is an example of what
receptive language/listener responding
If a child can respond correctly to "touch the car" but not respond correctly to "Touch the one you drive" they may be missing what skill
listener responding to function feature and class
what is another name for fast trigger
Claire has to write a sorry letter to the teacher and all of her friends when she yells at her friends in class. This is an example of what
which of the following should be used first when dealing with problem behaviors?
Leila engages in hand mouthing. She is reinforced every time she is engaged in a behavior that is incompatable with hand mouthing (drawing, playing with legos) this is an example of which differential reinforcement procedure?
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)
what will guide you to an appropriate intervention?
function of behavior
Extinction functions the same as ______ because both _______ the rate of a behavior
extinction is the most difficult to use with _____ maintained behaviors
what might be an appropriate consequence interventions for screaming for attention
ignoring the scream and later prompting them to call your name
the I in DRI stands for
a good behavioral definition is
when keenan and his mother go to the zoo, keenan always whines to ride the train. Most of the time his mother says no but when she is really tired she might say yes. Why is this behavior not likely to be easily extinguished
she has reinforced his whining on a very thin variable ratio schedule
what information can be generated from and FBA?
what variables are likely to be involved in maintaining the behavior
topography is the same as...
form: what the behavior looks like
anne was up late watching TV. when her alarm went off in the morning she threw it across the room. Her roommate came in and Anne yelled at her to leave her alone. what is the most likely distant setting or motivating variable affecting anne's bx?
lack of sleep
What is an antecedent?
an event that sets the stage for the behavior and occurs in close proximity to the behavior
Kyle walked into his classroom the teacher told him to go get his math book, kyle fell to the floor. The teacher went to tell the principle about kyle's bx instead of doing the math lesson. What could be the reinforcer
escape from math
how many functions of behavior are socially mediated?
behavioral definitions must be both...
observational and measurable
an important ethical question to ask when setting up a behavior change program is _______
how will this benefit the individual
what are the 4 functions of behavior?
access to tangibles, to gain attention, escape, automatic
Kyle walked into his classroom. The teacher told him to get his math book. Kyle fell to the floor. the teacher went to tell the principle about kyle's behavior instead of doing the math lesson. What is the antecedent to falling on the floor
being told to grab his math book
a BIP is...
a guide for parents, teachers, and other professionals on how to decrease inappropriate behaviors and/or teach replacement behaviors
For ASD children that do not easily acquire imitation, skills may need to be
broken down into basic compartments, directly taught, and reinforced
its important to remember that _____ action(s) should be taught for the same toy in imitation
the four areas of motor imitation are..
toy.object imitation, gross motor imitation, and oral motor imitation
For a student beginning imitation training, they need to engage is some pre-req bx, including
staying seated and attending to the teacher
it is important to remember throughout imitative skills training that the end goal is to have the student...
imitate others in his natural environment
(T/F) the SD "raise arms" should be used to teach imitation (memtic bx)
when creating video-self modeling videos, you...
videotape the student engaging in the desired behavior and edit out any other behaviors
which type of chaining results in the learner being reinforced after they perform the final step in the chain
when teaching bob to discriminate boys and girls, his teacher used pictures of exaggerated versions of genders (girls had long hair and dresses, boys wore pants with short hair). Over time, she used less exaggerated features. this is an example of what
Imitation training can be used to teach students to take cues from...
what kind of prompt is being used when the teacher flashes the light off then on to get students' attention
T/F video modeling is a new area of research in the field of education and behavior analysis
when teaching new behavior, you should use which type of prompt heirarchy?
most to least
a phonemic prompt is
a small verbal prompt that gets the learner to emit the desired response
discrimination training requires
one response and two antecedent conditions
during episodes of non-compliance, it may be necessary to use which type of prompt
the three steps of discrimination training are
teach in isolation, add distracters, mix in mastered skills
talk analysis is the first step in...
breaking a complex skills into a smaller teachable units is the definition of...
what is the best prompt to use when first teaching imitation?
discrimination training requires...
one response and two antecedent conditions
Video modeling is beneficial because
some children with autism already imitate videos and watching videos is often reinforcing
Johnny is reinforced to say Ba, then Baba, then bottle. this is an example of what procedure
the purpose of using time delay when prompting is..
to fade prompts and transfer the response to the SD
verbal prompts are some of the ________ ________ prompts to fade
definition of DTT
breaking skills down into small steps and teaching one sub-skill at a time until mastery
In the DTT cycle, the prompt should occur when
simultaneously with the instruction or just after it
in DTT, the inter-trial-interval generally lasts how long?
T/F with expressive targets you can use expanded trials
the following is an example of what; the teacher glances at the cow toy as she presents the instruciton "give me the cow"
reinforcing successive approximations of a target bx
what is chaining
breaking a skill down into components, teaching each step to mastery and then combining all steps
errorless teaching is when
the instructor provides prompting when the target is presented so that student response is correct
generalizations means demonstration of mastery across
time, people, materials
how can you tell if an item is a reinforcer
if the bx was actually repeated in the future after receiving the item
task variation involves the random interspersing of
tasks during a therapy session
teaching johnny to label his clothing items as he dressed would be an example of
natural environment teaching (NET)
backwards chaining is...
prompting the learner through the initial steps and allowing them to complete the final step, then they complete the final two steps, the three and so on
which effective teaching procedures can be used to NaTS to maintain motivation
using errorless teaching and varying tasks
Multiple examplar training refers to
using many different stimuli to teach a skill to promote generalization
sue's teachers say she isnt motivated by anything. She shows little interest in toys, activities or food. an exception appears to be one CD that she listens to exclusively. What can Sue's teachers do to broaden her reinforcement repertiore
pair toys, food, and activities with the music she loves and then start to fade music by turning the volume down
when teaching a new skill you should,
use multiple stimuli
there is a functional relationship between a behavior and a consequence when that behavior naturally produces that ________
something you can do to prevent the student from losing motivation in naturalistic teaching is
change activities at a pace that is just slightly faster than the learner is losing interest in them in the following teaching sessions
when certain parts of the environment impact our responses, this is said to have ______ over our responses
generalization can refer to the transfer of behaviors to
persons, settings, and other behaviors
T/F what someone says they want is the best predictor of reinforcer effectiveness
Rob is learning body parts, and loves frogs. His teacher draws a frog but leaves part of his body missing. When he points at the missing part, she prompts him to say the body part, then draws it. This is an example of NT because..
the reinforcer was directly related to the material being taught
if a Behavior analyst measured the length of time that it took andrew to respond to someone calling him, she would be measuring the...
outcome recording could be used for which behavior
writing an essay
which kind of data should be recorded on a graph for visual analysis
definition for hitting
forceful contact between learner's hand and another person
T/F when labeling the vertical or y-axis, you should indicate the specific measurment of behavior
Indirect assessment consists of
interviews, rating scales, questions, surveys, etc
an operational definition is used for a behavior so that
two independent observers will agree on occurrences and non-occurences of the bx
what is the first step in creating a behavioral treatment
define the bx and select a meaurment technique
if a bx analysis watched Jimmy for 5 minute periods and recorded if he were humming for ANY part of that 5 minute period, she would be using
partial interval recording
frequency recording would be appropriate to use for
if practitioners ethical responsibilities conflict with the law, ABA practitioners should
make known their commitment to these guidelines and take steps to resolve the conflict
T/F if you have commitments that get in the way of service delivery, it is okay as long as services are not disrupted for over two weeks, as that is when regression occurs
RBT stands for
registered behavior technician
the role of RBT is to
provide direct support and education with individuals recieving ABA services
if a practitioner finds that, due to unforseen factors, a potentially harmful multiple relationship has risen, what is reccomended
attempt to resolve with the best interests of the affected person and maximal compliance with the guidelines
what is a very common type of data used in ITT that takes a little more time
when teaching in ITT, the goal is to fade the frequency of reinforcement from a _________ schedule to a ________ schedule
T/F instructions (SD) should be delivered in many ways
what assessments can be helpful in setting up a VB program
ABLLS-R and VB-MAPP
in the ITT, the format is
Using transfer trials will help eliminate
When our learner is on a roll with responding, reinforcement should be
continued at current levels or increased
during error correction, after you represent the SD with a prompt, you should
represent the same instruction to test if the prompt
a woman saying Cynthia after being asked her name is an example of which verbal operant
_______ are usually the first form of communication to develop in typically developing children
Behavior that is evoked by another's verbal behavior such as conversation, can be best described as...
a guy asks for pizza, this is an example of which verbal operant
clapping upon seeing another individual clapping is an example of what bx
imitation (mimetic bx)
billy saying my name is Ricky after ricky said my name is ricky is an example of what
Skinner's bx analysis of verbal bx emphasizes _____ in addition to the form of language
as a dog walks in front of a boy, he says, look, a dog, this is an example of which verbal operant
When a learner becomes more non-compliant, it is most likely due to...
they are not getting enough reinforcement and the schedule of reinforcement is too thin
a learner will be more likely to perform behaviors that earn him more reinforcement than he would a behavior that produces less reinforcement. This refers to which characteristic of reinforcement
Characteristics and variables that are components of the matching law can be remmebered with the acronym
Present difficult tasks approximatley _____ % of the time
non contingent reinforcement is delievered
independent of the childs behavior
many individuals with problem behaviors have established learning histories where teachers and leaning environments are....
a worsening sets of conditions
As the student becomes more proficient with verbal imitation, what procedure should be used to shape articulation
a type of expressive language used to label or describe objects, actions, and characteristics in a learner's environment
What is a later step to be targeted within tacting
increase the length of utterances using carrier phrases
at what age has a child's tact vocabulary first increased to over 1000
A mand is controlled by
James is reaching for a gummy worm you have in your hand, and he isnt saying "gummy". What is the most intrusive prompt you can give
echoic: model the word gummy
teaching your student to mand can decrease problem bx bc
they can now use functional communication to get their needs met instead of problem bx
Carly answers a question correctly, carly's teacher high fives her, in the future carly answers more questions correctly. what is this?
Sara is working on social referencing, her teacher says 'sara" while shaking bubbles. In response sara looks at her teacher. What should happen next?
her teacher should reinforce immediatley with bubbles and say "nice looking"
Ricky is sitting on the floor playing with blocks, within a few feet other children are playin with blocks. what is this play called
an FBA is functioned to
Hypothesize functions of the bx
if you have an individual that engages in escape bx you shoud
tailor antecedent interventions to the person you support based on data from the FBA
After a crisis has occured, the person you support should engage in
pre-crisis tasks and activities
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Functions of Behavior (FBA)
Functions of Behavior & FBA
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