27 terms

Ch 5 Rocks

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Igneous Rocks
Rocks fromed by the cooling & crystallization of magma.
Extrusive
Fine-grained rocks made when lava COOLS QUICKLY on Earth's SURFACE.
Intrusive
Coarse-grained igneous rocks that cool SLOWLY DEEP in the Earth.
Magma
Molten rock INSIDE the earth.
Lava
Molten rock ON Earth's surface.
Obsidian
Extrusive igneous rock that cools SO FAST that NO crystals are formed. It looks like "black glass".
Pumice
Extrusive igneous rock with holes due to escaping gas.
Melting
When a mineral changes from a solid to a liquid at a particular temperature. .
Cooling & Solidification
When the liquid rocks/minerals are able to cool off and turn into solid rocks. This is a process in the formation of Igneous Rocks.
Sediments
Small pieces of rock or shells produced by weathering.
Most Common Sedimentary Rock (AKA Clastic Sedimentary Rock)
Rocks made of sediments cemented together. Usually formed under water. Examples are sandstone (medium-grain) and conglomerate (coarse).
Organic Sedimentary Rock
Made from remains of once living things. Examples: limestone made from shells, coal from swamp plants, etc.
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
Formed from the evaporation of water that leaves minerals behind. Occurs along the coasts of oceans and large salt lakes.
Uplift
When land is pushed to a higher elevation due to natural processes such as mountain building & plate tectonics. This brings deep rocks to surface where they can be weathered.
Chemical Weathering
Breaking down and loosening of materials on Earth's crust (rocks) by processes, such as dissolving due acid rain, rusting/oxidation, etc.
Mechanical/Physical Weathering
Breaking down and loosening of materials on Earth's crust (rocks) by forces, such as waves, ice wedging, freeze-thaw, etc.
Erosion
Movement and removal of surface materials to a new location. Movement may be caused by wind, moving water, gravity (landslide), etc.
Deposition
"Laying down" or "settling out" of sediments after being moved by erosion. Usually happens at the bottom of a body of water.
Burial
When sediments become covered beneath layers of other sediments.
Lithification
Process that transforms sediments into sedimentary rock. Includes both compaction & cementation.
Compaction
The process by which a sediment is squeezed together.
Cementation
Sediments are "glued" together when minerals precipitate/crystallize out of water.
Metamorphic Rock
Existing rocks changed into a new rock type while remaining solid. Caused by high pressure or heat. (Does NOT involve melting or weathering.)
Foliated
Metamorphic rocks with crystals in bands or wavy layers because the minerals have been squeezed under high pressure.
Non-foliated
Metamorphic rock that does not have bands or wavy layers because of high temperature (but NOT melted).
Heat & Pressure
Both pressure and temperature increase as you go deeper into Earth. When high enough, a metamorphic rock is able to form.
Rock Cycle
Continuous changing and remaking of rocks.
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