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Chapter 8 (Vitamins)

Nutrition
STUDY
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Which statement about vitamins is true?
Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way
Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic
If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be
a fortified breakfast cereal
Megadoses are described as vitamin intake ___ times the human need to prevent deficiency
2-10
Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat soluble vitamins
After absorption, they are transported in t he bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue
Which fat-soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amount over long periods of times
Vitamin A and E
Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin a
Carotenoids can be converted into retinoids
Which of the following vitamins helps acne
Vitamin A
Which of the following is the best source of preformed Vitamin A
Liver
George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following should he choose?
Spinach
Which of the following is converted into Vitamin A in the body
Carotenoids
This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida
Folate/folic acid
All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except
one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene
The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because
it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to sun
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
Vitamin D
The most reliable source of Vitamin D in the diet is
fortified milk
Vitamin E functions as
an antioxidant
The main form of Vitamin E in the body is
alpha-tocopherol
A rich source of Vitamin E is
corn oil
The nutrient essential for synthesis in several blood clotting factors is
Vitamin K
In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
kidneys
The B vitamins generally function as
antioxidants
Some niacin is formed in the body from
tryptophan
The vitamin that aids in activating fatty acids so they can yield energy is
pantothenic acid
Intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs
biotin
What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism
pyridoxine
Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are
vitamin b12 and folate
generally, good folate sources are
leafy green vegetables
The best option in ensuring adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is
a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals
Macrocytic anemia
Anemia characterized by the presence of abnormally large red blood cells
Hemolysis
Destruction of red blood cells
Erythrocytes
Mature red blood cells
Pernicious anemia
disorder that results from lack of vitamin b12 absorption
Rickets
disease characterized by poor mineralization of newly synthesized bones due to low calcium content and caused by vitamin D deficiency
Dementia
General loss or decrease in mental function
Osteomalacia
Adult form of rickets
Beriberi
Thiamin deficiency disorder characterized by muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and nerve degeneration
Intrinsic factor
Protein-like compound produced by the stomach that enhances vitamin b12 absorption
Xerophthalmia
Disease process caused by vitamin A deficiency that can cause blindness
Carotenoids
Pigment materials in fruit and vegetables that can be turned into vitamin A in the body
Dermatitis
skin condition commonly associated with niacin deficiency symptoms
Night blindness
Vitamin A deficiency in which the retina cannot adjust to low amounts of light