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AQA A2 English Language Key Terminology
Terms in this set (174)
Refers to a real place/person/thing
Refers to tanglible objects
Refers to intanglible things
Refers to groups of things
e.g. 'MURDER of crows'
Refers to things which can be made into the plural and in the singular be used with the definite article
e.g. 'the horse', 'horses'
Refers to things which can't be made into the plural or used with the definite ariticle
e.g. 'happiness', 'china'
Go before the noun
e.g. 'the BLUE hat'
Go after the noun
e.g. 'the hat was BLUE'
Used to compare, made by adding '-er' or 'the more'
e.g. 'my dog is the LARGER one'
Used to show that something is 'the most' or 'the best', made by adding '-est' or 'the most'
e.g. 'my dog is the LARGEST one'
Used to show the relationship between the noun that comes after it and something else in the sentence
May relate to position, direction or time
Refer to physical actions
e.g. 'to run'
Refer to states of being
e.g. 'to dream', 'to hope'
Need to be followed by an object to make sense
e.g. 'she carried...' (what???)
Don't need to be followed by an object to make sense
e.g. 'she ran'
Performs the main action of the sentence
e.g. 'the girl was DANCING beautifully'
Helper verbs, can also be the main verb.
'be' - 'I am a doctor', 'I was at the hospital'
'do' - 'I did the homework'
Modal Auxiliary Verb
Helper verbs, can only be used inconjunction with the main verb. Indicate doubt, certainty or possibility.
1. 'shall' - 'Cinderella shall go to the ball'
2. 'will' - 'I will go and vote'
3. 'would' - 'I would go shopping...'
4. 'should' - 'I should be revising'
5. 'might' - 'I might go and see Leon'
6. 'may' - 'I may get a bad grade'
7. 'can' - 'I can sew'
8. 'could' - 'I could light the fire'
9. 'must' - 'You must bring your ID card to the exam'
Provide info about where the verb takes place
If they appear at the begining of the sentence it often means it is important to knowwhen something happened
e.g. 'lately', 'always'
Adverbs of Place
Illustrate where the verb is happening
Many can also be used as prepositions
e.g. 'here', 'there', 'out'
Adverbs of Manner
Provide more info about how a verb is done
Adverbs of Degree
Explain the level of intensity of a verb/adjective/adverb
e.g. 'almost', 'quite', 'too'
Adverbs of Frequency
Explain how often a verb occurs
e.g. 'sometimes', 'never', 'normally'
Person or thing performing the action is emphasised
Emphasis shifts to the object
Smallest grammatical unit
Can stand alone as a word
Can't stand alone as a word
Replace the subject or object in a sentence
e.g. 'he', 'she', 'it'
Linking words, immediatley placed after the noun they refer to
'who', 'whom', 'whose', 'which', 'that'
Indicate the objective is the same as the subject
Sense of 'pointing' at somethin/one
Don't refer to anything in particular
Used when asking a question
'who', 'whose', 'which', 'what'
Used when the two clauses to be joined are of equal weighting
e.g. ' I like chocolate AND marshmellows'
Used to join a main clause and subortinate clause
Show uncertainty and possibilty
e.g. 'latecomers may not be admitted'
Indicate necessity and obligation
e.g. 'latecomers will not be admitted'
e.g. 'my', 'our', 'their'
show specific or vague amounts of a noun
e.g. 'one', 'some', 'many'
Demonstrate the identity of the thing following the noun
e.g. 'this', 'that', 'these', 'those'
show different ways of looking at individuals within a group
e.g. 'all', 'each', 'half', 'many'
show amounts of a noun
On clause, contain a subject, verb and object
e.g. 'I like chocolate'
Two or more main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction
e.g. ' I like chocolate and ice cream'
A main clause joined with one or more subordiante clauses
e.g. 'Even though it was raining, Rosie went horseriding'
e.g. 'I like horses'
e.g. 'go and vote'
e.g. 'what day is the English Language exam?'
e.g. 'I love horses!'
One or more words featuring as a unit in a sentence
Has a noun as the head word
e.g. 'the chestnut horse'
Has a verb as the head word
e.g. 'dancing gracefully'
Begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, pronoun or clause
e.g. 'at home', 'in time', 'from Rosie'
Changes the grammar of the word, may indiacte gender ,tense, etc.
Two or more phrases
Can stand alone as a sentence
Needs a main clause to make sense
Begins with a relative pronoun, acts as an adjective
Refers to the same thing as previously mentioned, side by side
Provides more info about the subject/object
e.g. 'I am A STUDENT OF ENGLISH'
Indicate the time, place, manner or degree of an event
e.g. 'YESTERDAY, I went horse-riding AFTERSCHOOL'
Direct position in time
How an event/action is to be viewed with respect to time
e.g. 'I have studied for the test', 'Rosie had met David Crystal before'
Incomplete or ongoing actions/states
e.g. 'I am listening to Birdy', 'The woman was shopping online'
Repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming
Repetition of similar-sounding consonants in close proximity
Sounds the same as what it means
Sound the same but spelt differently and have a different meaning
Repetition of consonant sounds at the begining of words
Repetition of the 'p' sound at the begining of words
Repetition of the 'f' sound at the begining of words
Repetition of the 's' sound at the begining of words
Vocal chords vibrate
e.g. /a/, /v/
Vocal chords don't vibrate
e.g. /p/, /ch/
Created by blocking the airflow
e.g. /t/, /b/
Partially blocking the airflow
e.g. /f/, /th/
Plosives and fricatives together
e.g. 'CHair', 'JAr'
Similar sounds to vowels
e.g. /v/, /w/, /l/
Air is allowed to escape freely through the nose
e.g. /n/, /m/
Consonant sound, airstream flows past both sides of the tongue
Associated with a sudden expression of emotion
Sliding together of sounds in rapid speech
Complete loss of a sound in rapid connected sppech
Smallest unit of sound
Written symbol which represents a phoneme
Single unti of speech
More than one syllable
A vowel sound that is the combination of two separate sounds
Fairclough - Synthetic Personalisation
Feels like the writer is talking directly to you
Maxim of Manner
Try to be brief/clear/orderly
Maxim of Quality
Do not say anything you know to be false
Maxim of Quantity
Don't say anymore or less than is required
Maxim of Relevance
Only say things which are relevant to the conversation
Implied meaning beyond what is actually said
Meaning isn't deducible from the words said
Context-bound, meaning depends on who is being referred to, where soemthing is happeneing or when it is happening
Signals attitude other than what has literally been expressed
Associations, based on cultural assumptions/ideologies
Words all have a similar meaning
Two words which often go together
e.g. 'fish and chips'
A politer way of saying something which is difficult to talk about
A ruder way of saying something which is difficult to talk about
Categories of things
Words which belong in the category
Subject-specific, can be inclusive and exclusive
Never used anymore
Rarely used, maybe just by a certain group
Two whole words joined together
Parts of two words added together
Adding a prefix or suffix
Changes word class
Read like a word
Read each individual letter
removing part of the word
Come from a person's name
Subtracting actual or suppossed affixes
Get something done/acquire something
'Small talk' - maintains politness
Focus is on the relationship between the speakers
Expresses speaker's feelings
e.g. everyday speech
Planned but tries to represent spontaneous
e.g. dialogue in stories
non-verbal, sign of speaker support
shift in topic, counter-arguement
e.g. 'like', 'um' - show support/hestitaion
avoid directness, minimise a potential FTA
begins to speak, pauses and recommences
correcting something previously said
return to a previous topic
a conventional/routine expression in colloquial communication
e.g. 'as a matter of fact'
Deliberately non-commital expressions in informal contexts
support, uncertainty, clarification
pauses, hestitaions, repetitions
sharing of speaking roles, usually cooperatively
two utterances by different speakers which have a natural, logcial link/complete an idea
Series of turns between speakers
Missing out words because a listener/reader can fill in the gaps
Langugae of a social group
Subject of the conversation
Change the topic
Sets out the topic
Going back to a previous topic
How spoken and written texts are structured
A stretch of spoken langugae from one word to sentences
Mean Length Utterance
Missing out letters/sounds
sentence adverbs that work to express an attitude or stance towards material which follows
something as yet unidentified
Referencing something from outside the text
Referencing something within the text
Discourses from one filed used as part of another
Picture of what they mean
Gain meaning through cultural assumptions
font size, etc.
features of a writing system
rely on the interplay of different modes to help shape meaning
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