61 terms

Chapter 1.1 Population and Settlement - Population Dynamics

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over-population
when a country does not have the resources to give all its people an adequate standard of living
population explosion
the dramatic rise in the world population which took place during the last two centuries
LEDCs
are the less economically developed countries
MEDCs
are the more economically developed countries
pro-natalist policies
strategies designed to stimulate a country's population growth by increasing its fertility rate
fertility rate
the average number of children women have in their lifetime is..
death rate
the average number of deaths in a year (for every 1000 people)
birth rate
the average number of live births in a year (for every 1000 people)
economic reasons for population explosion
children can be an important source of income. In the poorest countries, every contribution, however small, is vital tot he family budget. A child's income can mean the difference between starvation and survival for a family
care for elderly reasons for population explosion
older children can support the family by looking after elderly parents, or parents whose working lives are cut short by illness and accidents. The children may be the only support in countries that don't provide pensions or facilities for the sick and elderly
infant mortality reasons for population explosion
Parents want to make sure that at least some of their children will survive and become adults. In poor societies, where medical facilities are limited, there is a high infant mortality rate. Having a large family provides security against the problems of old age
life expectancy reasons for population explosion
People are now living longer because of improved medical knowledge and treatment. Better farming methods have increased crop yields so there is more food and a more nutritious diet
life expectancy
the average number of years people can expect to live
growth rate
the difference between the birth rate and the death rate
infant mortality rate
the proportion of children dying at birth or before their first birthday is..
under-population
if the number of people living in an area is fewer than the number that can be supported by the resources in that area
too many people, too few resources
a lack of clean water, droughts, loss of jobs, clearing of forested areas, natural disasters
a lack of clean water
It can force people to use polluted sources and possibly fall ill with diseases many of which are life-threatening, especially for the very young and old
Liberia's literacy rate is
60.8%
loss of jobs
When valuable natural resources become exhausted, workers are no longer needed and will not be able to support their families
droughts
They are becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change. They increase the risk of starvation in already over-populated countries
population growth
when there is rapid population growth, or an increase in immigrants, a country may be less able to provide for its people
clearing of forested areas
Can result in families not having the fuel they need for cooking, heating and washing
natural disasters
such as earthquakes and floods often deprive local communities of the resources they need, for example water, food and shelter
People's basic needs
shelter, water, food and clothing
environments of the world's land areas
lowlands, deserts, dense coniferous fores, polar regions (tundra) and mountains
Liberia's life expectancy
57.8
Liberia's fertility rate
world's 5 highest
Liberia's percentage of people living in poverty
80
Liberia's percentage of contraceptive use by women
11
Liberia's infant mortality rate
one of the world's 10 highest
Liberia's percentage of all Liberians below 25 years of age
61
Liberia's birth rate
36 per 1000 people
Tanzania
an over-populated country
Canada has a land area
14 325 times larger than Singapore
Canada is under-populated
because the infant mortality rate is very low and life expectancy is high
Tanzania Infant mortality rate
4.9
under-populated
describes an area where the population is well below that which can be supported by its natural resources
sparsely populated
Describes an area (usually 1 km2) where few people live
densely populated
describes an area where a lot of people live (often a number of people per 1 km2)
population density
The number of people living in a 1 km2 area
Liberia
high rate of natural population growth
Malaria spreads due to
mosquito parasite reaching the liver where it starts to reproduce
one of the main causes of early death in MEDCs
Tuberculosis
Malaria spread
a)infected mosquito bites the skin
b)mosquito parasite reaches the liver where it starts to reproduce
c)Many parasites enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells
d)infected blood cells burst, infecting other cells
e)blood cells no longer able to supply enough oxygen to the body
f)victim suffers fever and lacks energy
g)uninfected mosquito bites skin and becomes infected - it will infect the next person it bites
pandemic
Is an outbreak of an infectious disease so widespread that it kills millions of people in a very short time
black death
Mid-14th century, which we now know was spread by rat-born fleas, killed over 75 million people in Europe. It had significant impact on the global population at that time
spanish flu
1918-20 killed about 75 million people. It was probably particularly deadly because many people had been weakened by the effects of the First World War (1914-18)
malaria
Kills at least 1 million people every year in tropical countries, where breeding conditions for mosquitoes are ideal. One in every five childhood deaths in Africa is due to this disease.
Anti-natalist policies
Strategies designed to limit a country's population growth or in disagreement with anything to do with childbirth
population structure
The way a population is composed of different age-gender groups
age dependency
The link between the number of adult people who create wealth and the young and elderly population which depends on them for support
penalties for not following the one-child policy
1. government employees sacked,
2. government employees retirement pensions cancelled,
3. fines imposed (up to 4 times a family's income),
4. farmers who couldn't pay fines in cash had cattle taken from them,
5. extra children denied the same quality of education and healthcare as the first child,
6. basic rice allowance withdrawn for all extra children
benefits of being a one-child family
1. better housing
2. better childcare
3. cash bonuses
4. longer maternity leave
5. better chances of promotion for government employees
The world's average fertility rate
2.46
pro-natalist policies
strategies designed to stimulate a country's population growth by increasing its fertility rate
Germany
has the largest population in Europe but it is still concerned about its declining fertility rate
The Large Family Card or Carte Familles Nombreuses
gives families with 3 or more children reductions on the national train network and half-price fares on the Paris Metro Underground system
France
has some of the most extensive state-funded childcare facilities in Europe
Western Europe fertility rate
1.65
Pro-natalist measures taken by the French government
1. up to 16 weeks'paid maternity leave for first child, rising tp 26 weeks for third child
2. all childcare facilities subsidised by the government
3. system of créches for toddlers
4.up to 26 months entitlement to time off work, to be shared by both parents
5. tax deductions towards home-help costs for working mothers
6. subsidised state nursery schools for children aged 3 or over
7. free pre-school facilities fro children aged 2 or 3
8. loss of earnings payments for parents of a third child
9. graded income tax system- the bigger the family, the less tax to be paid