A type of fighting behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal.
A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine.
Lenin's radical, revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxian socialism, which successfully installed a dictatorial socialist regime in Russia.
The notion that people should be able to live free from outside interference in nations with clearly defined borders, and should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority-rule elections.
Failed German plan calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia.
The 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and the Allied powers.
Treaty of Versailles
A war in which distinctions between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred, and where the government plans and controls economic social life in order to supply the armies at the front with supplies and weapons.
Peace treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian empire's population to the Central Powers.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two thousand to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals, modeled on the revolutionary Soviets of 1905.
A permanent international organization, established during the 1919 Paris peace conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars.
League of Nations
An article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared that Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting.
War Guilt Clause
Unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations begun in March 1917 (old calendar February) in Petrograd, Russia, and that led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government.
The application of centralized state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work.
The alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression.
Wilson's 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self-determination.
What part of Bismarck's alliance system did William II abandon?
Germany's non-aggression pact with Russia.
What was the primary consequence of the First Moroccan Crisis in 1905?
Britain, France, and Russia began to see Germany as a threat to all of Europe.
The immediate cause of British entry into the First World War was...
The German invasion of neutral Belgium.
What issue most substantially raised tensions between Germany and Great Britain in the first decade of the 1900s?
Germany's decision to build a large fleet of battleships.
As the war began, how did leading politicians and intellectuals present the war to their publics?
As a test of strength that would lead to national unity and renewal.
Why was the Balkans considered the "tinderbox of Europe"?
The Ottoman Empire had been forced to give up its territory in the region, leading to growing ethnic nationalism.
What were both of the two-front wars that military planners had anticipated prior to the First World War?
Russia had assumed a two-front war against Germany and Austria-Hungary and Germany had assumed a two-front war against Russia and France.
Throughout the First World War, what mistake did military commanders repeatedly make?
They attempted to mount massive offensives designed to break through entrenched lines.
How did the war on the Eastern front differ from the war on the Western front?
The war on the Eastern front remained more mobile, with Germany in a more dominant position.
Why did the German military command recommence submarine warfare in the Atlantic despite knowing that it would lead the United States to enter the war against them?
They believed that improved submarines could starve Britain into submission before the United States could come to Britain's rescue.
Bismarck's alliance system was designed to isolate France and...
Maintain peace between Russia and Austria-Hungary.
What did Germany's Auxiliary Service Law require?
It required all men between seventeen and sixty to work at jobs considered critical to the war effort.
The war affected women in all of the following ways except...
A new image emerged that highly restricted women's sexuality and public appearance in the new work environment and public places.
How did Henri Pétain maintain order among French troops by late 1917?
He formed a tacit agreement with the troops that there would be no more grand offensives.
Which of the following best characterizes the February Revolution in Russia in 1917?
It was the result of an unplanned uprising of hungry and angry people in the capital.
Austria-Hungary deliberately chose war in July 1914...
To stem the tide of hostile nationalism within its borders.
What did the Petrograd Soviet Army Order No. 1 state?
Military officers were stripped of their authority and power was placed in the hands of elected committees of soldiers.
During the First World War, the African colonial subjects of Britain and France
Generally supported their foreign masters.
Generally, the offensives on the western front
Were depressingly similar slaughters of massed infantry units.
How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks' view of the Marxian party in Russia differ from the Mensheviks' view of the party?
The Bolsheviks wanted a small, disciplined party, while the Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
At the Paris Peace Conference, French premier Georges Clemenceau
Wanted to create a buffer state between Germany and France.
How did Lenin respond to the peasants' seizure of land when he rose to power in 1917?
He mandated land reform in order to offer his approval for what the peasants had already done.
What was the primary political weakness of the White forces as they fought against the Bolsheviks?
They had a poorly defined political program that failed to unite the enemies of the Bolsheviks.
What happened to Ukraine and Belarus when the Soviet Union seceded to Germany in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
How did the moderate Social Democrats in Germany put down the radical communist Spartacist Uprising?
They called on bands of demobilized soldiers called Free Corps to crush the uprising.
What was the principle of national self-determination that Woodrow Wilson promoted?
People should be able to choose their own national government through a democratic process and live free from outside interference.
Why did Germany accept the Treaty of Versailles?
They had little alternative, especially as the naval blockade was still in place and the people of Germany were starving.
What was the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916?
An agreement between Great Britain and France to divide up parts of the Near and Middle East after the war
How did the Western powers react to the declarations of independence by Syria and Iraq shortly following the First World War?
Western powers invaded the two regions and defeated the independence movements.
According to the text, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War...
Helped the Bolsheviks, who could appeal to patriotic nationalism against the Allies.