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Nutrition exam 1
Terms in this set (69)
study of the interaction between nutrients, the bodys function, and health
A substance that the body requires for energy, regulation of body processes and structure
must be acquired by diet.
a compound that must be in the diet and is considered essential for life. The body cannot make it at all or produces insufficient amounts.
body can make adequate amounts.
a compound that the body can make in sufficient amounts.
scientific unit used to measure energy
nutrients needed in larger amounts. (Carbs, proteins, fats, and water) Provide the body with energy. Grams
nutrients the body needs in smaller amounts. (vitamins and minerals) Assist with keeping body regulated. Milligrams
the biochemical activity that occurs in cells.
mineral that assumes charge when dissolved in water
are chemical compounds in plants that have various effects on the body functions. play an important role in health
study of how dietary compounds alter the expression and/or structure of an individuals genetic makeup, thus affecting their health and risk of disease
What are 3 broad functions of nutrients?
Regulate body processes
Which nutrients yield energy?
List the general functions of carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins and minerals.
Carbohydrates- provide energy
Lipids- provide energy, also involved with structure and regulation
protein- support growth, maintenance and repair tissue
vitamins and minerals- assist in release of energy from macronutrients
Calculate the total calories in a food item using the macronutrient composition of that food item.
Carbs & Protein = 4kcal/g
Fats = 9kcal/g
Compare and contrast fat soluble and water soluble vitamins.
fat soluble- does not dissolve in water and can be stored in the body for long periods of time
water soluble- dissolves in water, and is not stored in the body
Identify factors that influence food choices.
Culture and Tradition Family
Distinguish between undernutrition and over nutrition.
undernutrition- inadequate amounts of specific nutrients
over nutrition- too much of a specific nutrient
List diseases that are strongly linked to nutrition. Which of these diseases are top leading causes of death in the U.S.?
Cancer and heart disease are the leading causes of death in the U.S.
Briefly explain in 1-2 sentences the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
EFNEP- education to assist in improving diets and lifestyles
WIC- improve nutrition during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood
List regions in the world where undernutrition is most prominent.
sub-saharan africa and asia
What are societal causes of undernutrition? What population groups are at greatest risk of undernutrition?
limited access to foods, civil conflict, over population
pregnant and lactating women and children
Describe what may qualify an individual to be an expert in nutrition?
someone with an advanced degree and credentials in the field, such as a master of science (MS) or a doctoral degree (PhD) in nutrition
In addition to nutrition experts, what is another source of reputable dietary advice?
Reputable, peer-reviewed nutrition journals
Describe the 3 components of a healthy eating plan.
variety, balance, moderation
Distinguish between examples of nutrient dense foods and foods that contain empty calories.
nutrient dense- nutrient content of food is relative to its calories (fruit)
empty calories- calories that have little or no nutrient content (soda)
Describe the purpose of DRIs
The new standards, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), are designed for healthy people and are categorized based on age group and life stage.
include the EAR, RDA, AI, and UL
the different sets of values that comprise the DRIs.
Adequate intake (AI): value assigned to nutrient with little scientific evidence.
Estimated average requirement (EAR): values meet 50% of age of gender; established after careful review
Tolerable upper intake level: highest level of daily nutrients.
Recommended dietary allowance (RDA): value assigned to a nutrient that would meet 97-98 percent of individuals
What resources and guidance documents can be used to aid consumers and the government in dietary decision making?
MyPlate- daily plan for food intake
supertracker- allows you to enter personal information to receive an individualized meal plan
List differences between the current nutrition facts label and the proposed nutrition facts label.
Revised serving sizes
Larger print for calories
Added sugars amounts
Different vitamins added
Certain information will be larger - total calories much bigger, standard serving size slightly larger
Calories from fat will be gone
Includes information on added sugars
Different micronutrients listed - vitamin D, calcium, iron, potassium
Be able to evaluate the %DV on a nutrition facts label to determine if a food is high or low in nutrients.
5% or less= low
20% or more = high
What are the 3 basic types of label claims allowed on food products?
nutrient content claims
first step in the process of converting food into energy. It is a complex series of chemical reactions and interactions combined with muscular movements that break food down into smaller compounds.
the movement of smaller products of digestion across the lining of the intestinal tract, into our bodies, and ultimately into our cells.
What are the locations of each of the 3 primary sphincters involved in digestion?
lower esophageal- base of esophagus and top of stomach
pyloric sphincter- base of stomach and top of small intestine
ileocecal valve- separates the ileum from the cecum of the large intestine to prevent reflux of waste. between small and large intestine.
Describe the functions of the 5 gastric secretions.
Mucus: protect the stomach lining from hydrochloric acid.
Hydrochloric acid: denatures proteins and activates the enzymes pepsin and lingual lipase prepare for absorption.
Intrinsic factor: makes absorption of vitamin b12 possible.
Pepsinogen: proenzyme that is converted into pepsin by stomach acid.
Hormones: control movement of the stomach and the secretions of hydrochloric acid, communicate with the rest of the body.
Identify the components of the small intestine. In what portion(s) of the small intestine does most absorption occur?
jejunum- where most digestion and absorption occur!!!
What is the most common/primary cause of peptic ulcers?
Heliobacter pylori or H. pylori
makes having a bowel movement difficult
caused by low fiber, not enough exercise, medication, dehydration
Produces pain in the chest when stomach acid refluxes back into the esophagus
cause by being overweight, pregnant, a hernia, diet
inability to breakdown lactose because of a lack of the enzyme lactase
caused by genetic ethnicity, surgery
Briefly describe the process of digestion starting in the mouth and ending at the large intestine.
The mouth chews food, saliva begins breaking down food, esophagus transports food to stomach, LES moves food into the stomach, stomach further breaks down food, Pyloric sphincter moves food from stomach to small intestine, small intestine absorbs nutrients, Ileocecal valve moves food to large intestine, Food is prepared for defecation
live microorganisms that can have a beneficial effect on health
non-digestible carbohydrate sources used to support metabolism of microbes in large intestine
combination of probiotic and prebiotic
What are the primary monosaccharides in foods?
Fructose- fruits and honey
Galactose- fruit pectin
Define nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners and provide examples of each.
nutritive- can be digested and yield calories (sucrose, fructose, honey)
non-nutritive - can be natural or synthetic and do not provide calories (equal, splenda, sweetn low)
What are the roles of insulin and glucagon in regulating blood glucose?
insulin- Meet immediate energy needs,If glucose concentrations exceed energy requirements, Stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle, Then stores as fat
glucagon- glycogen breakdown for glucose, Triggers gluconeogenesis
Describe the three categories of diabetes mellitus and associated complications.
type 1 diabetes mellitus- most often diagnosed in children or adolescents, Pancreas is unable to provide insulin
type 2 diabetes mellitus- Accounts for more than 90% of all cases of
diabetes mellitus, Cells are insulin resistant. ( overweight, obese)
gestational diabetes mellitus- Type of diabetes that occurs in some women during
pregnancy. Resolves after pregnancy
complications of diabetes
Water loss as kidneys try to eliminate excess glucose
Increased risk for coronary heart disease
High blood pressure
Damage to the eyes and blood vessels
Damage to nervous system
tingling and numbness
Complications for infant:
can cause fetal or infant illness or death
high birth weight (macrosomia) of infant
low blood glucose post-delivery
diagnosis of diabetes melatitus later in life
can dissolve in water,
jellylike material that acts like a cement in plants
Binds to bile in intestine
Can aid in lowering blood cholesterol
May reduce risk of heart disease
Ex. fruit, potato
cannot be dissolved in water, composed of cellulose hemicellulose and lignin
Ex. cereal, whole grain, brown rice
intolerance to gluten that results in autoimmune response
cannot eat wheat, barley, rye
What are the pros and cons of low-carbohydrate diets?
Pro- weight loss
con- high in fat, increased risk of heart disease, bad breath, constipation, dehydration
What is lactose intolerance? What foods can be included in the diet of a lactose intolerant individual to help them obtain calcium without gastrointestinal symptoms?
some people are unable to digest lactose due to loss of function of the enzyme lactase.
due to genetics, aging, illness
doesnt always have to avoid it, just smaller portions. yogurt, soy milk, lactose drops
major categories of lipids
Distinguish between the structures of saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated.
saturated- do not contain double bonds in the carbon chain
monounsaturated- contain only one double bond in the carbon chain
polyunsaturated- contains two or more double bonds in the carbon chain
What are common dietary sources of saturated, unsaturated, and trans fatty acids and cholesterol in the American diet?
saturated- butter, meat
unsaturated- olive and coconut oils
List the two essential fatty acids and two common dietary sources of each.
1. linoleic acid omega 6- soybean, corn, vegetables, fruits
2. linolenic acid omega 3- flaxeed, pumpkin seed, walnuts
What is the role of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid products in health maintenance.
omega 6- incorporated into cell membranes, precursors to compounds involved in reproduction and blood flow
omega 3-in cell membranes, helps prevent tissue inflammation, may prevent heart disease
What functions do lipids perform in our bodies and in foods?
Body: energy source, supply of essential fatty acids, absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins, organ insulation/protection, cell membrane structure.
Foods: adds flavor to food (increasing satiety).
What is a fat blocker? List side effects of these weight loss products.
Marketed as weight loss drugs. It disrupts intestinal fat absorption to inhibit digestive enzyme that breaks down triglycerides
side effects- anal leakage, reduced fat soluble vitamin A, D, E, and K absorption, malabsorption of oral contraceptions
Identify the type of lipid (cholesterol, triglycerides, etc.) carried by each of the four
VLDL: (very low-density lipoprotein), carries triglycerides and cholesterol.
LDL: (low density lipoprotein), carries cholesterol.
HDL: (high density lipoprotein), removes excess cholesterol from cells/blood.
Chylomicrons: carries dietary lipids to liver.
How do levels of LDL and HDL impact heart disease risk?
LDL: Delivers cholesterol to tissues, including blood vessels.
HDL: removing excess cholesterol and transports it to the liver for breakdown (decreasing heart disease risk).
What are the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations on fat?
20-35% of daily calories from fat
How does the Mediterranean diet compare to the typical Western/American diet? What foods are consumed in the Mediterranean Diet?
Generally less obese, diet is not lower in fat. less than 35% calories from fat
Mediterranean diets consist of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables with emphasis on olive oil, fish, and poultry.
What type of fats are associated with increased incidence of cancer and heart disease? What types of fats are associated with reduced incidence of cancer and heart disease incidence?
high levels of saturated fat linked to increase incident
fatty fish and fish oil high in omega 3 decreases incident
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