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king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy

Pepin III (the Short)

He was Charles Martel's son. He defeated the Lombards and gave their land to the Pope. This territoy became the Papal States. He was annointed King by the Grace of God.

Charles Martel

the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.


king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor

Gregory VII

the pope who fought to establish the supremacy of the pope over the Church and the supremacy of the Church over the state in the 11th century (1020-1085)

Hildegard of Bingen

Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composesrs and contributor to Gregorian chant; had visions and was mystic and prophet to kings, popes, emperors, priests

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII that marriage was annulled (divorced) in 1152 and she then married Henry II and became Queen of England (1122-1204)

St. Francis of Assisi

Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars; treated all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters; born to wealthy merchant family and willingly gave up a life of comfort

Geoffrey Chaucer

English author who wrote The Canterbury Tales, a literary masterpiece written in the vernacular in which pilgrims were going to worship at the shrine of Thomas Becket at Canterbury.

Thomas Becket

the archbishop of Canterbury, close friend of Henry who later opposed his attempt to bring Church/clergy into royal court system. Murdered by Henry's knights, then declare a saint by the Church

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