First, there are languages such as Fulfulde (W.Africa) in which only 1/3-person pronoun, "o", is used for males and females, but the speakers tend to still follow male-dominant social patterns.
Second, if language determined thought in such an absolute way, it would be impossible to translate from one language to another or even to learn another language with a different grammatical structure.
Third, even if it were possible to draw firm boundaries around speech communities (which it isn't), every language provides its native speakers with alternative ways of describing the world.
Forth, in most of the world's societies, people grow up speaking more than one language, yet they don't also grow up struggling to reconcile two different views of reality. Bilingual children benefit from two languages, they're not confused by them and also demonstrate stronger cognitive flexibility.
The study of language use in a specific culture, grounded in an ethnographic approach, with close attention to the relationships between language, communication, and social interaction—practice and habitus.
A study of language that relies on ethnography to illustrate the ways in which speech is both constituted by and constitutive of social interaction.
Focuses on how language is used in practice - in commonplace situations in which the rules of grammar, cultural values, and physical action are all conjoined. The perspective locates the source of meaning in everyday, routine social activity (habits), rather than in grammar alone.
Pays attention to both the immediate context of speech and the broader cultural contexts, which are shaped by unequal social relationships and rooted in history. It locates meaning in how language is used in practice and in routine practical activities, which turn grammatical features of language into resources people can make use of in their interactions with others.
Phonemes, morphemes, syntax, and semantics are viewed as linguistic resources people can make use of, rather than factors that impose strict rules on how we use language. If mutual understanding is shaped by a shared routine activity an not solely by grammar, if both people don't speak mutual intelligible languages - all they need is a shared sense of what is going on and the ability to negotiate who will do what.
Simple hand gestures, movements, and facial expression. Non-verbal.
Culturally specific. Interacts with verbal language and used to:
-Complement: raising eyebrows
-Accent: pounding a table to make strong point
-Contradict: nodding when saying no
-Repeat: nodding when saying yes
-Substitute: point a the door instead of asking someone to leave.
-Regulate: look at another person to encourage them to speak.
Ex: sign language, gestures, facial expressions, physical appearance, clothing, hairstyle, etc.
Non-verbal communication can compliment, accent, contradict, repeat, substitute, or regulate. The use of time and space.