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Groups that provide members with a sense of belonging & affection(family&social groups)
Advantages of Group Work
Groups make higher quality decisions that individuals (innovative ideas & social facilitation- people work harder & do better when others are around)
Disadvantages of Group Work
more time to make decisions, discussions can be less then satisfying due to dominance/withdrawal of members causing frustration
Small Group Communication
Small # of people(3-7) less diverse than a large group. Common purpose:meet to solve problems. Connection with each other.
Directly related to the accomplishment of group goals. Seeking, processing, evaluating info.
Helps est. a groups social atmosphere EX)Encourage others to talk or mediate arguments
Focus more on individuals own interest & needs than the groups. Tend to be uninvolved, negative, aggressive.
Assumes leadership behaviors can be learned, when in need, a person from a group can step up
Empowers group to work independently from leader by encouraging cohesion. Uses good comm. skills & inspiration messages to create a vision
Extremely confident leaders inspire unusual dedication to themselves by relying on strong personality & charm
Problem Solving Agenda
Often conflicts are settle prematurely. Creating an agenda offers a better solution
p1 Orientation & Primary Tension
Group members express uncertainty. Comm. is polite, tentative, & focused
Importance of Rhetoric
Must be able to listen critically & talk carefully. Helps people seek justice. Helps people clarify their own beliefs
Person/institution that addresses a large audience: originator of communication message but not necessarily the one delivering it. Ex: president speaking to the nation
Use of emotions. Emotional appeals affecting decision making. (using photos of a dead body in murder case)
Relationship to Audience
Must be adapted to the Rhetorical Audience (people who can take the appropriate action in response to the message)
Reaffirming Cultural Views
Rhetorical events (events that generate a significant amount of public discussions) give insight to the ways meaning is constructed & rhetoric & cultural values are affirmed
Increasing Democratic Participation
Deliberative rhetoric (used to argue what a society should do in the future) is deeply embedded in the democratic process
Arena in which deliberative decision making occurs through the exchange of ideas & arguments. Usually the voices of less powerful groups/individuals
Bringing About Justice
Use of forensic rhetoric (addresses events that happened in the past & focus on setting things right about an injustice has occurred)
Prompting Social Change
Used in social movements (large body of people attempting to bring about change)
Those that extend one's sense with a lot of data/information. Less participation. Ex: movie, radio, photograph
Cultural Industries/Mass media business
Large organizations in the business of mass communication that produce, distribute, or show various media texts as an industry
Portrayal of communication as a process occurring largely in one direction. (Media Message → Receivers ex: violence & sexuality on tv affects viewers
Mass Media Effects
Influence that media has on people's everyday lives. ex: Measure the influence media has on a person. Media images of beautiful people & self image
How Individuals Choose Media Messages
Scholars want to study the direct effect of a particular media outlet, they need to know the audience to study
Idea that people seek media messages &/or interpret media texts in ways that confirm their beliefs & resist/avoid messages that challenge their beliefs. Ex: passion of the Christ & Fahrenheit 911
Uses & Gratifications
Idea that people use media messages & find various types of gratification in some media than others
Confirming Social Identity
Media influences our understanding of identities of ourselves & others. Ex: jokes on homosexuality are still prevalent in a lot of films which reinforces the hierarchy that heterosexuality is valued over homosexuality
idea that long term immersion in a media environment leads to "cultivation" shared beliefs about the world. Ex: although crime rates have dropped, Americans feel more insecure than ever
Occasions/catastrophes that interrupt programming & create vast numbers of media messages. Ex: 9/11.These events are filled with messages that shapes one's view of the world
Representations of violent acts in the media. Violence in the media increases aggression & anti social behavior in children
Practice of organizing to communicate displeasure with certain media images & messages, as well as to force change in future media texts
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