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91 terms

COM 100

STUDY
PLAY
Fact of life
Groups are everywhere. Essential.
Primary Groups
Groups that provide members with a sense of belonging & affection(family&social groups)
Enhanced College Performance
Studying in small groups can enhance performance/grades
Enhanced Career Success
Organizations seek out individuals who work well with others
Enhanced Personal Life
Committees, nonprofit, community organizations
Advantages of Group Work
Groups make higher quality decisions that individuals (innovative ideas & social facilitation- people work harder & do better when others are around)
Disadvantages of Group Work
more time to make decisions, discussions can be less then satisfying due to dominance/withdrawal of members causing frustration
Small Group Communication
Small # of people(3-7) less diverse than a large group. Common purpose:meet to solve problems. Connection with each other.
Group Roles
Shared expectations groups members have regarding each individuals comm. behavior
Task Roles
Directly related to the accomplishment of group goals. Seeking, processing, evaluating info.
Initatior/Contributor
Proposes new ideas "How about if we look at.."
Information Seeker
Asks for info or clarification "How many instances of___occur each year?"
Opinion Seeker
Asks for opinions from other "How do you feel about...."
Information Giver
Provides facts, examples & other relevant evidence "my research shows.."
Opinion Giver
Offers beliefs or opinions "I'm often concerned about..."
Elaborator
Explains ideas, offers examples to clarify "If this action was taken__might not happen"
Coordinator
Shows relationships among ideas presented
Orienter
Summarizes what was discussed
Evaluator-critic
Judges evidence & conclusions
Energizer
Motivates group members
Procedure Technician
Performs logical tasks, arranging seats, hanging out papers
Recorder
Keeps a record of group activities
Relational Roles
Helps est. a groups social atmosphere EX)Encourage others to talk or mediate arguments
Encourager
Offers praise & acceptance of ideas "Great idea, tell us more"
Harmonizer
Mediates disagreement among group members
Compromiser
Attempts to resolve conflicts
Gatekeeper
Encourages less talkative contributions
Expediter
Tries to limit lengthy contributions
Standard Setter
Set standards & goals
Group Observer
Keeps records of process & uses the info to evaluate group procedures
Follower
Goes along with suggestions & ideas
Individual Roles
Focus more on individuals own interest & needs than the groups. Tend to be uninvolved, negative, aggressive.
Aggressor
Attacks other group members, takes credit for others ideas
Blocker
Generally negative & stubborn
Recognition Seeker
Calls attention to personal achievements
Self -confessor
Uses group as audience to report non related issues
Joker
Lacks involvement in groups process, distracts others
Dominator
Asserts control by manipulation
Help Seeker
Tries to gain sympathy
Special Interest Pleader
Works to serve individual need
Trait Theory
Leadership that suggest that leaders are born;innate
Functional Theory
Assumes leadership behaviors can be learned, when in need, a person from a group can step up
Style Theory
Leaders manner/style determines his success
Authoritarian
Takes charge, makes decisions, dictates strategies/work tasks
Democratic
Influenced by group input
Transformational Theory
Empowers group to work independently from leader by encouraging cohesion. Uses good comm. skills & inspiration messages to create a vision
Charismatic Leadership
Extremely confident leaders inspire unusual dedication to themselves by relying on strong personality & charm
Equal Participation
All groups members contribute
Consensus Decision Making Style
All members agree with decisions made
Cooperative Conflict Style
Manages conflict by intergration that others are valued & important
Problem Solving Agenda
Often conflicts are settle prematurely. Creating an agenda offers a better solution
Define & Delineate Problem
Everyone must understand the problem in the same way
Analyze Problem
Determines direction of potential solutions. Looking at all sides of problem
Analysis Paralysis
Potential pitfall. Excessive analysis prevents moving towards solution
Identifying Alternate Solutions
Brainstorming of solutions
Evaluate proposed solutions
Establishing evaluation criteria to apply to each proposed solution
Choose the best solution
Using decision making phases, choosing the best plausible solution
Decision Making Phases
4 Phases used to evaluate info to arrive at solution
p1 Orientation & Primary Tension
Group members express uncertainty. Comm. is polite, tentative, & focused
p2 Conflict & Secondary Tension
Reoccurring tension. Comm becomes more honest, argument
p3 Emergence
Group express cooperative attitude. Compromise occurs
p4 Reinforcement
Reach consensus & decision is solidified
Importance of Rhetoric
Must be able to listen critically & talk carefully. Helps people seek justice. Helps people clarify their own beliefs
Rhetor
Person/institution that addresses a large audience: originator of communication message but not necessarily the one delivering it. Ex: president speaking to the nation
Art of Rhetoric
Aristotle-three artistic proofs: ethos, pathos & logos
Ethos
Credibility. Rhetors gain credibility from good sense, moral character, & goodwill
Pathos
Use of emotions. Emotional appeals affecting decision making. (using photos of a dead body in murder case)
Logos
Rational appeals. Reasoning & rationality. (using fingerprints in a murder case)
Social Position
Place in the social hierarchy. ( student, customer, friend, voter...etc)
Relationship to Audience
Must be adapted to the Rhetorical Audience (people who can take the appropriate action in response to the message)
Reaffirming Cultural Views
Rhetorical events (events that generate a significant amount of public discussions) give insight to the ways meaning is constructed & rhetoric & cultural values are affirmed
Increasing Democratic Participation
Deliberative rhetoric (used to argue what a society should do in the future) is deeply embedded in the democratic process
Public Sphere
Arena in which deliberative decision making occurs through the exchange of ideas & arguments. Usually the voices of less powerful groups/individuals
Bringing About Justice
Use of forensic rhetoric (addresses events that happened in the past & focus on setting things right about an injustice has occurred)
Prompting Social Change
Used in social movements (large body of people attempting to bring about change)
Hot Media
Those that extend one's sense with a lot of data/information. Less participation. Ex: movie, radio, photograph
Cold Media
Require receiver to fill in much more information ex: TV, Telephone, Cartoon
Media
Plural for medium, a channel of communication. Ex: film, radio, tv, newspapers
Cultural Industries/Mass media business
Large organizations in the business of mass communication that produce, distribute, or show various media texts as an industry
Linear Model
Portrayal of communication as a process occurring largely in one direction. (Media Message → Receivers ex: violence & sexuality on tv affects viewers
Mass Media Effects
Influence that media has on people's everyday lives. ex: Measure the influence media has on a person. Media images of beautiful people & self image
How Individuals Choose Media Messages
Scholars want to study the direct effect of a particular media outlet, they need to know the audience to study
Selective Exposure
Idea that people seek media messages &/or interpret media texts in ways that confirm their beliefs & resist/avoid messages that challenge their beliefs. Ex: passion of the Christ & Fahrenheit 911
Uses & Gratifications
Idea that people use media messages & find various types of gratification in some media than others
Confirming Social Identity
Media influences our understanding of identities of ourselves & others. Ex: jokes on homosexuality are still prevalent in a lot of films which reinforces the hierarchy that heterosexuality is valued over homosexuality
Agenda-setting capacity
Power of media coverage to influence individuals view on the world
Cultivation theory
idea that long term immersion in a media environment leads to "cultivation" shared beliefs about the world. Ex: although crime rates have dropped, Americans feel more insecure than ever
Media Events
Occasions/catastrophes that interrupt programming & create vast numbers of media messages. Ex: 9/11.These events are filled with messages that shapes one's view of the world
Media Violence
Representations of violent acts in the media. Violence in the media increases aggression & anti social behavior in children
Media Activism
Practice of organizing to communicate displeasure with certain media images & messages, as well as to force change in future media texts
Hays Code
Self-imposed rules for Hollywood media content instituted in 1930 with the goal of creating "wholesome entertainment"