AP World History Period 2 Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies (600 BCE- 600 CE)
Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 BCE to c. 600 CE
Terms in this set (33)
How did religions help strengthen political, economic, and cultural ties within societies?
· Leaders who adopted religions were able to use certain codes of that religion to advance their personal agendas, such as justifying wars
· Religion had a role in determining status in a society. A Pagan in a Christian civilization would be of lower status.
· A person who adopted the civilizations main religion had economic benefits, such as not having religious taxes. People who didn't convert to the civilizations religion were discriminated against in the form of taxes
· Establishing places of worship in undeveloped territory increases the chance for colonization
· A strong religion resulted in the construction of places of worship, which had architectural value, for example: the Hagia Sophia
· Adopting the same religion would unite cultures, for the Roman empire and European barbarians
How did religions promote a sense of unity?
When outside lands, or barbarians, were brought into a civilization the adoption of the main religion unified the people. Also, when leaders adopted a single religion a set of codes, which was based on religious principles, was enforced on the people. Religion's overall effect on a civilization's political, cultural and economic aspects strengthened the civilization's sense of unity.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Judaism?
· Secular religion that focused on worldly benefits, such as prosperity, material goods and successes.
· Through a covenant with God, followers of Judaism who abided by "the Law", were promised deliverance
· There were two different types of Jews: the original Jews, who believed in the promise of deliverance from God known as a covenant, and Jesus's followers, who believe that God's grace is not guaranteed and is based on God's will.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Hinduism(s)?
· Believed in a caste system, which states that people's place in society is predetermined and unmovable
· Brahmans, or priests of the highest caste, were considered to garner the most respect
· Enforced traditions, such as the sanctity of cows and the belief that a widow should be burned on her husbands funeral pyre (sati)
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Buddhism?
· Humans are inherently evil, through meditation, prayer, and unselfish behavior they can reach nirvana (true happiness)
o Nirvana: ultimate extinction of all sense of self in a mystical state
o If nirvana is not achieved, the soul is reborn (reincarnation)
o A persons reincarnation is based upon their past actions. For example a person who is evil would be born as a lesser being, a person who is good would be born with higher status in society
· Two offshoots of Buddhism:
o Theravada Buddhism: Buddhism influenced by Indian moral disciplines where the soul can advance to nirvana through tiny increments, which can transcend lifetimes
o Mahayana Buddhism: Buddhism influenced by Chinese principles, where the soul could reach nirvana in one single lifetime
How and where did Buddhism spread by 600 CE?
· Silk Road activity (ex. Traders and missionaries)
· Buddhist rulers, such as Asoka, through conquests of other civilizations, forcibly converted conquered peoples to Buddhism
· Buddhism trickled down from higher levels of societies, for example Empress Wu used Buddhist clergy to gain popularity, which caused her people to convert to Buddhism
· Buddhism spread to areas along the Silk Road, i.e. China, India, Tibet, Middle East, Turkey
· Buddhism also spread through naval trade routes in places such as Korea, Malaysia and Japan
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Confucianism?
· Man is born good.
· World is morally neutral - i.e. the world does not decide on the consequences of man's actions.
· Human nature is inherently good, therefore people should have political rights, such as the right to protest -however, Confucians still advocate a single ruler
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Daoism?
· Similar to Buddhism in the belief of detachment from the world in order to reach immortality
· Human ritual has the ability to change nature. If one can control it, there is power to be had in nature, however if one does not know enough, there can be detrimental effects
· Led to the beginning of scientific methods such as observation, experimentation, description and classification
· Daoist rulers should enforce morals and virtues upon his/her people
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Christianity?
· Divine love
· Importance of faith
· Important figure = Jesus
· Christianity is monotheistic
· God is all-knowing
· All people are sinners, which separates us from God
How and where did Christianity spread by 600 CE?
· Rulers, such as Charlemagne, converted the conquered peoples
· Christianity trickled down from rulers to civilians
· Christianity was spread along the silk road through the use of monasteries; however, compared to Buddhism, it was less successful
· Roman Empire (especially the Holy Roman Empire), Ethiopia, Armenia, Kiev, the Franks
What are the main characteristics of Greco-Roman philosophy and science?
· Used logic and objective questioning to solve problems, as opposed to the use of gods and religion
· The scientific method developed from Greco-Roman philosophy as a way to investigate the workings of nature
· Attempted to view the universe as parts of a whole; philosophers developed the concept of atoms as building blocks of matter
How did religions affect gender roles in their respective societies?
· Women became the teachers of religion inside the home
· In Buddhist cultures, nunneries were used as places of education for women as well as nurseries
· In Islamic cultures, men practiced polygamy, and women's rights were often limited.
What other religious and cultural traditions were common by 600 CE?
· Christian societies were regulated by having houses of work, study, and prayer.
· Enforced traditions, such as the sanctity of cows and the belief that a widow should be burned on her husband's funeral pyre (sati)
· Women's rights included initiating divorce, owning property, and conducting their own business
· Fasting and meditation
· Once Muhammad died, a split occurred between the Islamic communities regarding the successor of his throne. The Sunni believed that any member of his tribe could take office, while the Shia believed it should by Ali or a decendant
· Fasting and meditation
· Respect towards all living creatures
How did humans' reliance on the natural world influence religion?
Communities questioned the cause of natural disasters and natural phenomenon. People looked towards religion to provide the answers to these questions. In Ancient Greece, mythology was developed as a means of explaining such things as the origin of the world and seasons. These people offered meals to these gods as worship and partook in religious ceremonies and rituals involving the twelve deities. In Christianity (and other religions), rulers bent the principles of their religion for their own agendas which can include justifying wars and conquering territories. In Judaism, religion was based off of worldly needs such as prosperity and successes.
How did humans relate to their deceased ancestors?
-reincarnation/nirvana: ancestors were with either among them or were in the state of nirvana
-passed oral traditions from generation to generation
How did art and culture develop to 600 CE?
-Religion (ex. Sculptures of gods...)
-based on worldly needs and events (ex. Paintings of travel along the Silk Road)
What literary works influenced later eras?
· Marcus Aurelius - Meditations: Influenced Stoic philosophy
· Ban Gu - Book of Han: History of China during 206 BC to 25 AD
· Books of the New Testament
How did different societies' architectural styles develop?
-natural resources available for building
What is an "empire," and what were empires' common characteristics during the Classical Era?
An empire is a large collection of peoples across a broad geographic range that lives under a common rule. Common characteristics included long trade routes across land and coastline, levied taxes on subjected peoples, enforced religion, threats from attacking barbarians, a system of central and local governments to maintain order, and armies to defend borders and maintain peace.
How did the number & size of Classical empires compare to the Ancient Era?
The most influential Classical empires were fewer in number than those of the Ancient Era. The states in nearby areas gradually consolidated, by their own choice or by force, to form these large empires. Thus, the Classical empires were also much greater in size. The populations could easily reach tens of millions, compared to a few hundred thousand in smaller states. The empires also stretched across huge tracts of land while civilizations such as the River Valley civilization were constrained to areas surrounding rivers and riverbanks. Rome went across Europe to the Middle East. China spanned most of present day China.
What were the most influential of the Classical Era empires?
The Roman, Persian, and Chinese empires were the most influential. Other smaller empires included the Gupta empire of India and the Mayan empire of South America.
What techniques did Classical empires create to administer their territories?
China developed the best communication lines throughout the kingdom - messages could be easily sent and received. Rome built the greatest infrastructure, consisting of roads, aqueducts, and cities. All three empires relied on violence and military threat to maintain order to some degree, Persia most notably. Standardized taxes were levied on citizens to raise revenue.
What new political methods were created in order to rule the larger empires in the Classical Era?
Many times, a central ruler would command from a capital city, leaving localized rulers to direct smaller regions or towns. This sometimes led to insubordination and small rebellions. Dynasties were set up to create successive lines of imperial rule, as seen in Chinese families, the Roman emperors, and Persian kings. In Rome, there was also an influential senate and imperial advisory counsel.
How did imperial governments let their population know that the government was "in charge?"
Many imperial governments asserted their power by claiming to have divine connections. In most empires,one common religion was enforced. While governments allowed citizens to keep their respective religion, minorities were often taxed and vulnerable to religious persecution. They also taxed citizens and their conquered territories reminding them that they were the subjects of the government.
What role did trade play in creating and maintaining empires?
Trade enabled states to gather wealth and increase in size and influence. States that produced high demand products like silk could trade them and become wealthy. Empires like Persia which controlled major trade routes could also profit by taxing goods that passed through their territory. Amassing money was important for empires to stay in control. Wealth was needed to build armies.
What unique social and economic characteristics existed in empires?
Empires contained a wide variation in social and economic levels. In Rome, members of the senate had a higher social position than average citizens and there were varied levels of citizenship. There were also slaves. In China, classes ranged from upperclass nobles and scholars to farmers and artisans to the less respected merchants. Persian classes included kings and nobles of various regions, high class military leaders and clergy, then artisans, tradesmen, and peasants .
What function did imperial cities perform?
Imperial cities were centers of trade and government. In cities, especially those placed on key trading routes, many merchants could come together and exchange goods. Rulers also positioned themselves in cities, where they could display their power.
What social classes and occupations were common in empires?
Empires had a single ruler called an emperor. Since empires were spread over so much area, they also needed governors for each region. There was also a large number of people employed in keeping the empire going including local and military officials. Other occupations included farmers and artisans. Social class was often determined by which area of the empire you were from, especially where empires spanned multiple cultures.
What labor systems provided the workers for Classical Empires?
The Romans provided workers by enslaving the people they conquered. Although it was outlawed by Cyrus the Great in Persia, it was still present there as a source of labor. The Han dynasty also utilized slavery as a source of labor.
Describe the gender and family structures of Classical Era empires.
In China, family structures were based on Confucianism, which was based on relationships within a family. Typically fathers were at the top of the family, their sons were second, mothers were third and the son's wives were the lowest in the family. For the most part, men dominated in the family structure in China. In China, loyalty to the family was considered to be very important.
In Persia and Rome, gender played a greater role than family structure. Men performed jobs and left the home to earn wages. Women stayed home and took care of family and chores. Women married at a young age, some in their teens to men who were in their twenties.
What caused Classical Empires to decline, collapse, or transform into something else?
Several factors combined to lead to the fall of the Classical Empires. External forces, like the Germanic tribes and steppelanders outside of the Han dynasty, were jealous of Classical Empire wealth. This led them to invade these empires, which were weakened by being so spread out, to gain the benefits of being a Roman, Persian or Hani. Empires also declined due to moral decline, as empires grew comfortable with their lives of luxury. This created weakness that could not hold up against outside forces. The Classical Empires also deviated from their core beliefs from when they were growing. For example, Roman soldiers lost pride in fighting for Rome, and only cared about money, resulting in weaker defenses from external forces.
What were the environmental and social weaknesses of Classical Empires?
Social weaknesses are the moral declines that Classical Empires went through. This includes Roman emperors that became materialistic and increased tax pressure on the poor while the rich evaded taxes. Environmental causes for the decline of the Classical Empires included the external forces that resulted from lack of inclusiveness and over extension on the part of the empires. This made the empires harder to defend and more money had to be put towards excluding outsiders. This hurt the economy and helped create even more weaknesses in the Classical Empires.
What external weaknesses contributed to the end of Classical Empires?
For the Romans, Germanic tribes' jealousy of their wealth led to invasions that the Romans could not fend off due to preoccupation with wars against the Persians. The Han faced steppelanders from the west were absorbed into the Han dynasty, which resulted in the weakening of the Han dynasty. Persians were taken down by a unified Greece that banded together when Persia invaded to take over trade in the region. Eventually, Alexander the Great conquered Persia.