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Diagnosis, symptomatic, and related terms


Absence of urine production or urinary output


Retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood.


Painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a burning sensation while urinating.

end stage renal disease (ESRD)

Condition in which kidney function is permanently lost.


Involuntary discharge of urine. Also called incontinence.


Abnormal passage from a hallow organ to the surface or from one organ to another.


voiding urine at frequent intervals.


Involuntary delay in initiating urination.


Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract.

nephrotic syndrome

Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of glomerular membrane.


Excessive or frequent urination after going to bed.


Diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism.

poly cystic kidney disease (PKD)

Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys.


feeling of the need to void immediately.

vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)

Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter.

Wilms tumor

Rapid developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children.


Congenital absence of one or both tests; also called anorchia or anorchism.


Failure to form or ejaculate semen.


Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis.


Malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis.

erectile dysfunction (ED)

Repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.


Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structure.


Stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis.


Inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum.


Swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord


Bacteria invade the renal pelvis and kidney tissue.


any condition that causes the glomerular walls to become inflamed.


Stones may form in any part of the urinary tract, but most arise in the kidney.

Bladder neck Obstruction

blockage of the bladder outlet. May be caused by an enlarged prostate glands (prostatic hyypertrophy) or by the presence of an obstructive mass such as a calculus, blood clot, or tumor.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

The prostate enlarges and decreases the urethral lumen.
Inability to empty the bladder completely may cause cystitis


failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac prior to birth.

Acute Tubular Necrosis

Two major causes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) are ischemia and nephrotoxic injury. The tubular portion of the nephron is injured through either decreased blood supply or presence of toxic substances

Azotemia, uremia

wastes (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) in the blood.

Chronic renal failure

failure that occurs over a period of years, whereby the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dietary intake; condition is due to deficiency in the total number of functioning nephrons in the kidneys


developmental anomaly in the man in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum.


radiography of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium, used to diagnose tumors or defects in the bladder wall, vesicoureteral reflux, stones, or other pathological conditions of the bladder.


radiography of the ureters and renal pelvis.


radiography of the urinary tract after introduction of contrast medium.

BUN (blood urea nitrogen)

Assesses kidney function by determining the nitrogen in blood in the form of urea (increased BUN usually indicates decreased renal function

Urine Culture and sensitivity (C&S

used to determine the sensitivity of a urinary pathogen to the effects of various antibiotics


incision of a kidney to remove a stone


agents that promote the secretion of urine.

Estrogen hormones

hormones used in men to suppress gonadotropic and testicular androgenic hormones; used to treat some pro static cancers.


hormonal preparation used to raise sperm count in infertility cases.


substances that destroy sperm; used within the woman's vagina for contraception


agents that increase the urinary excretion of uric acid; used to great gout.


hydrogen ion concentration, degree of acidity.

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