Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract.
Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of glomerular membrane.
Diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism.
poly cystic kidney disease (PKD)
Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys.
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter.
erectile dysfunction (ED)
Repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structure.
Stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis.
Bladder neck Obstruction
blockage of the bladder outlet. May be caused by an enlarged prostate glands (prostatic hyypertrophy) or by the presence of an obstructive mass such as a calculus, blood clot, or tumor.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
The prostate enlarges and decreases the urethral lumen.
Inability to empty the bladder completely may cause cystitis
Acute Tubular Necrosis
Two major causes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) are ischemia and nephrotoxic injury. The tubular portion of the nephron is injured through either decreased blood supply or presence of toxic substances
Chronic renal failure
failure that occurs over a period of years, whereby the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dietary intake; condition is due to deficiency in the total number of functioning nephrons in the kidneys
developmental anomaly in the man in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum.
radiography of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium, used to diagnose tumors or defects in the bladder wall, vesicoureteral reflux, stones, or other pathological conditions of the bladder.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Assesses kidney function by determining the nitrogen in blood in the form of urea (increased BUN usually indicates decreased renal function
Urine Culture and sensitivity (C&S
used to determine the sensitivity of a urinary pathogen to the effects of various antibiotics
hormones used in men to suppress gonadotropic and testicular androgenic hormones; used to treat some pro static cancers.