DNA and Replication, RNA and Transcription, and Translation
What does DNA stand for?
Where is it found?
All cells in the chromatin, chromosomes, and genes Prokaryotic-in cytoplasm Eukaryotic-in nucleus
What is DNA?
DNA is the blueprint ( or set of recipes) for the production of proteins and RNA molecules.
What does DNA look like?
Looks like a Twisted Ladder -Two sides -Steps going across -Spirals
What is the shape of DNA called?
What makes up the sides of DNA?
molecules of sugars and phosphates
What makes up the "steps" or "rungs" of DNA?
Two matching Nitrogen bases
What are the 4 Nitrogen bases?
A = Adenine C = Cytosine G = Guanine T = Thymine
How do the Nitrogen bases match up?
Always the same way-nitrogen based pairs held together by hydrogen bonds Adenine always connects with Thymine A - T or T - A Cytosine always connects with Guanine C - G or G - C
What is DNA Replication?
The process performed by cells to create two exact copies of the DNA.
Where does DNA Replication happen?
nucleus of Eukaryotic cells
When does DNA Replication happen?
the very end of Interphase just prior to Mitosis or Meiosis.
What does RNA stand for?
Where is RNA found?
In the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells; in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
What does RNA do?
carries genetic information to the ribosomes.
What is RNA made of?
NUCLEOTIDES-- building block consisting of a 5-carbon ribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of 4 nitrogen bases.
What are RNA's 4 Nitrogen bases?
A = Adenine C = Cytosine G = Guanine U = Uracil
What does RNA look like?
A single sided molecule composed of nucleotides. -not a double helix -shorter than DNA (only the length of 1 gene)
What is Transcription?
The copying of a DNA gene to make a strand of mRNA.
Where does Transcription happen?
In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
What are the Steps of Transcription?
1. The DNA unwinds 2. H bonds are broken between the bases on the DNA 3. The sides of the DNA separate 4. Free RNA nucleotides move in between the DNA strands. 5. A mRNA is created by copying the DNA gene. mRNA leaves the nucleus. mRNA travels to a ribosome to be "read" during the process of translation
What is Translation?
The reading of RNA by the ribosomes
What happens during Translation?
mRNA carries information from a DNA gene to a ribosome. A ribosome reads the mRNA and links together the amino acids needed to build a protein.
What are amino acids?
subunits or buildig blocks that make up proteins
What is on the RNA to let it know to make the proteins?
There are special codons (3 to make amino acids) to make specific amino acids to make proteins. There are special codons to stop the process.
How many amino acids are there?
20 can be linked together in many ways to make different proteins