28 terms

World History - Unit 4


Terms in this set (...)

What is imperialism?
a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially
What is racism?
the belief that one race is superior to another
What is social Darwinism?
the application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as justification for imperialist expansion
What was a Boer?
a Dutch colonist in South Africa, usually a farmer
What was the Boer War?
a conflict lasting from 1899 to 1902 in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa
What is paternalism?
a policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights
What is assimilation ?
a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institution and customs
What is a caudillo?
a military dictator of a Latin American country
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
a US policy of opposition to Europe interference in Latin America, announced by President James Monroe in 1823
What was the Spanish American War ?
an 1848 conflict between the US and Spain in which the US supported Cubans fight for independence
What is the Panama Canal?
a human-made waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans built in Panama by the United States and opened in 1914
What was the Roosevelt Corollary?
President Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, in which he declared that the United States had the right to exercise "police power" throughout the Western Hemisphere
What were three motives behind the European race for the colonies?
1. economic 2. socially/religious 3. politically/militarily
What were the outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?
this conference laid down the rules for the division of Africa - There was no thought to how ethnic or linguisitc groups were distributed
What were the four methods of European colonial control that emerged over time?
The four methods of control were: colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, and economic imperialism.
Why did European powers race each other to claim land in Southeast Asia?
They desired the land for its strategic location along the sea routes to China and their sources of tropical agriculture, minerals, and oil.
What was the system of peonage in Latin America?
Free workers were little better than slaves since wages were low and prices were high. Workers were usually in debt that accumulated and passed from one generation to the next
What were the events leading up to the battle between Mexico and Texas?
Mexico gave the US land to "borrow" and the US wanted to keep the land. When Mexico came to retrieve the land we sent in the US military and we ran into the Mexican military
What was Shaka?
a Zulu chief who used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state in southern Africa
Who was Cecil Rhodes?
a successful British businessman and major supporter of British expansion in Africa
Who was Liliuokalani?
Hawaii's only queen and last monarch; called for a new constitution to increase her power and restore the political power of Hawaiians at the expense of wealthy American planters
Who was Jose Marti?
a writer who was exiled from Cuba by the Spanish; he returned to launch a second war for Independence
Who was Santa Anna?
Mexican President for four terms; lost the battle for Texas; lost the war to the US giving the US some Mexican land that included California and the American Southwest
Who was Benito Juarez?
raised a poor Zapotec Indian, was elected president of Mexico in 1861; fought against French invasion; was reelected president in 1867
Who was Porfirio Diaz?
Mexican Indian from Oaxaca who became a noted general in the civil war and the fight against the French;ousted Juarez from the presidency, and became President; used strong arm methods to remain president; and created order in Mexico
Who was Francisco Madero?
believed in democracy and wanted to strengthen its hold in Mexico; announced his candidacy for President in 1910, but Diaz had him arrested; from exile in the United States , he called for an armed rebellion against Diaz
Who was Pancho Villa?
military leader in the northern part of Mexico; had a bold Robin Hood policy of taking money from the rich and giving it to the poor
Who was Emiliano Zapata?
military leader in the southern part of Mexico ;determined to see that land was returned to peasants and small farmers;wanted the laws reformed to protect their rights