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60 terms

Nutrition 7-12

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Excess body fat increases chronic disease and health risks. One of these diseases is sleep apnea and is defined as
Excess weight in the upper body-particulary around the lungs and pharynx
Basal metabolism is the energy expended
when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state.
All of the following are true about contributors to energy expenditure except
fidgeting accounts for 40 percent of total energy expenditure.
The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is
direct calorimetry.
Xenical is a weight loss drug that works in the digestive system
to block digestion of about one-third of the fat in the food we eat.
When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis.
35%
When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis.
24%
Which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat?
Body mass index
When individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight lost is from
water, glycogen, and muscle tissue.
Changing one's frame of mind related to weight control and nutrition is called
cognitive restructuring.
Choosing a diet low in sodium means knowing which foods are high in sodium and which foods are low in sodium. Which item has the highest level of sodium
deli meat.
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ___________ mm Hg.
140/90
Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via
evaporation
Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
6 cups.
Which of the following portions of food would have the least sodium?
Animal Crackers, 1 ounce
The typical American diet contains approximately ___ milligrams of sodium
2,300-4,700
Potassium is found in the largest quantities in
fruits and vegetables.
The major source of chloride in the diet is
salt.
The DASH diet for reduction of hypertension
recommends 2-3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products
The most practical advice for prevention of hypertension is
maintain a healthy weight.
Which food contains preformed vitamin A?
Liver
When a cell membrane is damaged by free radicals, which specific component of the cell membrane is damaged?
Phospholipid
Antioxidants
Donate electrons to free radicals.
Vitamin E functions as a(n)
antioxidant
Food processing
decreases vitamin E content of foods.
To bolster immune function, evidence supports
consuming 5 - 9 servings of a variety of fruits and vegetables per day.
Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?
Smokers
Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?
Carotene
Which fat-soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells because it promotes mucus production?
Vitamin A
Dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of
Vitamin A
A variety of factors can increase or decrease osteoporosis risk. Indicate which person is at the highest risk for osteoporosis.
Female, smokes, slender frame, and sedentary lifestyle.
The mixture of calcium and phosphorus that mineralizes bone is called
hydroxyapatite
Higher intakes of all of the following are associated with increased bone mass except
sodium
To prevent bone loss, a woman at risk for osteoporosis could
increase weight-bearing exercise.
increase dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D.
consult a physician about estrogen replacement.
All of the following deplete bone mass except
excess body weight
Calcium absorption is increased by all of the following except
old age.
Blood calcium concentration is regulated by
bones
intestines
kidneys
The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is
dairy
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
Vitamin D
Aging increases dietary needs for
calcium
vitamin D
magnesium
Adequate folate intake during pregnancy is imperative for the prevention of neural tube defects like spina bifida. Which option below has the greatest amount of folate per serving?
Prenatal vitamin with 400 micrograms of folate
This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida.
Folate/Folic Acid
An important role of vitamin K is the synthesis of
prothrombin.
The nutrient that prevents beriberi is
thiamin
Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease
pellagra
Intestinal bacteria can make this B-vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs.
Biotin
Vitamin B-12 is supplied almost entirely by
Animal Products
Pernicious anemia is most commonly caused by
inadequate B-12 absorption
How many sources of non-heme iron are in the following meal: Tuna sandwich on enriched bread with milk and an apple.
3
Worldwide, the most prevalent nutrient deficiency is of
iron.
Determine which activity would benefit most from carbohydrate loading?
Long Distance Running
What is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions?
Adenosine triphosphate
Anaerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
30 seconds to 2 minutes
Which of the following is true about protein as an energy source?
The need for protein as an energy source is greater for endurance athletes than for those who body build or lift weights.
If an athlete's body fat level is too high, what is the best weight loss approach?
Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
Carbohydrate loading
involves a tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carbohydrate intake.
Which of the following is true about the protein intake for athletes?
Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.
If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should do all the following except
exercise more intensely.
A well-tolerated exercise for overweight people is
bicycling
Which of the following does not have an ergogenic effect according to your text?
Carnitine