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produced by the kidneys, affects blood pressure


stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow, released by the kidneys


position of the kidneys, beneath the parietal peritoneum

cortex and medulla

2 main regions of the kidney


kidneys drop due to fat loss rpaidly


urine cannot be excreted and backs up in the ureterss, putting pressure on kidney tissue and can cause it to burst


structural and functional units responsible for forming the urine product


knot of capillaries in nephron in bowman's capsule

bowman's capsule

end of the renal tubule is enlarged and cup-shaped, completely surrounds the glomerulus

loope of henle

region of tubule

filtration, reabsorption, and secretion

3 processes which urine goes thru in kidneys


low urine output- b/w 100-400 mL


cease to put out urine


secreted into the filtrate, related to creatinine metabolism and muscles, lots found in urine if you exercise profusely

nitrogenous waste

nitrogen-containing, found in blood- include urea, uric acid, and creatine- all nitrogen compounds included

ECF- extra cellular fluid

all body fluids outside the cells, includes blood plasma and interstitial fluid, etc - in compartments


antidiuretic hormone, prevents excess water loss in urine- in blood, raises blood pressure


produced by the heart, hormone which causes water loss an lowering of blood pressure


regulates blood composition and volume, regulates sodium ion content of the ECF and helps to regulate ion concentration

diabetes insipidus

severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, always thirsty, not enough ADH - urinate excessively


excess urine output

addison's disease

hypoaldosteronism, lose salt and water too much

bicarbonate buffer system

mixture of carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate, acts as a base, releases or bonds to hydrogen, controls blood acidity

respiratory buffer system

eliminates CO2 while loading O2, controls blood acidity, fastest buffer system

renal buffer system

eliminate any acids generated during metabolism, regulate blood levels of alkaline substances, excrete bicarbonate ions, generate new bicarbonate ions


pigment resulting from body's destruction of hemoglobin

acid ash diet

urine very acidic, eat mainly proteins and whole wheat

alkaline ash diet

vegetarian diet, excrete excess bases


kidney inflammation

renal calculi

kidney stones, uric acid salts form

internal and external urethral sphincters

internal, involuntary, keep urethra closed when no urine is being excreted, external, skeletal, urethra passes thru the pelvic floor


inflammation of the urethra


micturition, act of emptying bladder


voiding, emptying bladder

pelvic splanchnic nerves

cause bladder to go into vertex contractions


unable to voluntarily control the external sphincter

hypertrophy of prostate

enlargement, surrounding the neck of the bladder


slender rubber drainage tube draining urine and preventing bladder trauma from excess stretching

polycystic kidney

degenerative condition, 1 or both kidneys enlarged and have many blister-like sacs containing urine, smashes tubules, 2 genes for it


found only in male babies, urethral orifice is located on the ventral surface of the penis, corrective surgery is performed at 12 months


glomerular filters become clogged with antigen antibody complexes resulting form strep


need to get up in the night to urinate, 2/3 people have it to some degree

horseshoe kidney

misshaped kidney, birth defect


inability to control urination- usually under the age of 2

estrechia coli

ecoli bacteria common in digestive tract, if in urinary, get bad infection

bladder cancer

melanoma, only 2% have, chemical destruction or exposure of bladder


bladder protrudes thru pelvic wall into vagina

renal infarct

renal tissue dies and usually from circulating issues


kidney specialist

kidney diseases

glomerylonephritis, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, urethritis, pyelonephritis, etc

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