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urine cannot be excreted and backs up in the ureterss, putting pressure on kidney tissue and can cause it to burst
end of the renal tubule is enlarged and cup-shaped, completely surrounds the glomerulus
secreted into the filtrate, related to creatinine metabolism and muscles, lots found in urine if you exercise profusely
nitrogen-containing, found in blood- include urea, uric acid, and creatine- all nitrogen compounds included
ECF- extra cellular fluid
all body fluids outside the cells, includes blood plasma and interstitial fluid, etc - in compartments
regulates blood composition and volume, regulates sodium ion content of the ECF and helps to regulate ion concentration
severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, always thirsty, not enough ADH - urinate excessively
bicarbonate buffer system
mixture of carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate, acts as a base, releases or bonds to hydrogen, controls blood acidity
respiratory buffer system
eliminates CO2 while loading O2, controls blood acidity, fastest buffer system
renal buffer system
eliminate any acids generated during metabolism, regulate blood levels of alkaline substances, excrete bicarbonate ions, generate new bicarbonate ions
internal and external urethral sphincters
internal, involuntary, keep urethra closed when no urine is being excreted, external, skeletal, urethra passes thru the pelvic floor
slender rubber drainage tube draining urine and preventing bladder trauma from excess stretching
degenerative condition, 1 or both kidneys enlarged and have many blister-like sacs containing urine, smashes tubules, 2 genes for it
found only in male babies, urethral orifice is located on the ventral surface of the penis, corrective surgery is performed at 12 months
glomerular filters become clogged with antigen antibody complexes resulting form strep
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