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50 terms

A & P Urinary System

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renin
produced by the kidneys, affects blood pressure
erythropoietin
stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow, released by the kidneys
retroperitoneal
position of the kidneys, beneath the parietal peritoneum
cortex and medulla
2 main regions of the kidney
ptosis
kidneys drop due to fat loss rpaidly
hydronephrosis
urine cannot be excreted and backs up in the ureterss, putting pressure on kidney tissue and can cause it to burst
nephron
structural and functional units responsible for forming the urine product
glomerulus
knot of capillaries in nephron in bowman's capsule
bowman's capsule
end of the renal tubule is enlarged and cup-shaped, completely surrounds the glomerulus
loope of henle
region of tubule
filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
3 processes which urine goes thru in kidneys
oliguria
low urine output- b/w 100-400 mL
anuria
cease to put out urine
creatinine
secreted into the filtrate, related to creatinine metabolism and muscles, lots found in urine if you exercise profusely
nitrogenous waste
nitrogen-containing, found in blood- include urea, uric acid, and creatine- all nitrogen compounds included
ECF- extra cellular fluid
all body fluids outside the cells, includes blood plasma and interstitial fluid, etc - in compartments
ADH
antidiuretic hormone, prevents excess water loss in urine- in blood, raises blood pressure
ANH
produced by the heart, hormone which causes water loss an lowering of blood pressure
aldosterone
regulates blood composition and volume, regulates sodium ion content of the ECF and helps to regulate ion concentration
diabetes insipidus
severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, always thirsty, not enough ADH - urinate excessively
polyuria
excess urine output
addison's disease
hypoaldosteronism, lose salt and water too much
bicarbonate buffer system
mixture of carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate, acts as a base, releases or bonds to hydrogen, controls blood acidity
respiratory buffer system
eliminates CO2 while loading O2, controls blood acidity, fastest buffer system
renal buffer system
eliminate any acids generated during metabolism, regulate blood levels of alkaline substances, excrete bicarbonate ions, generate new bicarbonate ions
urochrome
pigment resulting from body's destruction of hemoglobin
acid ash diet
urine very acidic, eat mainly proteins and whole wheat
alkaline ash diet
vegetarian diet, excrete excess bases
pyelonephritis
kidney inflammation
renal calculi
kidney stones, uric acid salts form
internal and external urethral sphincters
internal, involuntary, keep urethra closed when no urine is being excreted, external, skeletal, urethra passes thru the pelvic floor
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
voiding
micturition, act of emptying bladder
micturition
voiding, emptying bladder
pelvic splanchnic nerves
cause bladder to go into vertex contractions
incontinence
unable to voluntarily control the external sphincter
hypertrophy of prostate
enlargement, surrounding the neck of the bladder
catheter
slender rubber drainage tube draining urine and preventing bladder trauma from excess stretching
polycystic kidney
degenerative condition, 1 or both kidneys enlarged and have many blister-like sacs containing urine, smashes tubules, 2 genes for it
hypospadia
found only in male babies, urethral orifice is located on the ventral surface of the penis, corrective surgery is performed at 12 months
glomerylonephritis
glomerular filters become clogged with antigen antibody complexes resulting form strep
nocturia
need to get up in the night to urinate, 2/3 people have it to some degree
horseshoe kidney
misshaped kidney, birth defect
incontinence
inability to control urination- usually under the age of 2
estrechia coli
ecoli bacteria common in digestive tract, if in urinary, get bad infection
bladder cancer
melanoma, only 2% have, chemical destruction or exposure of bladder
cytocele
bladder protrudes thru pelvic wall into vagina
renal infarct
renal tissue dies and usually from circulating issues
urologist
kidney specialist
kidney diseases
glomerylonephritis, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, urethritis, pyelonephritis, etc